Flashcards in Chapter 1-5 VOCAB*** Deck (138):
What are some properties of life? (7)
1. Order- ordered structure that characterizes life
2. Evolutionary adaption- adaptions evolve over many generations by the reproductive success of those individuals with heritable traits that are best suited to their environment
3. response to the environment-response to the environmental stimulus
4. Reproduction- organisms reproduce their own kind
5. Growth and development- inherited info carried by genes controls the pattern of growth and development of organisms
6. energy processing- obtaining fuel (or food) and having a chemical energy to process the fuel
7. Regulation- regulation of blood through blood vessels
properties that are not present at the preceding level of the organism
an approach that attempts to model the dynamic behavior of whole biological systems based on a study of the interactions among the systems parts
What are the levels of biological organization
1. The Biosphere
6. Organs and Organ Systems
consists of all life on Earth and all the places where life exists-regions of land, most bodies of water, the atmosphere, etc
Grasslands, deserts, and the ocean's coral reefs are examples. An ecosystem consists of all the living things in a particular area, along with all the nonliving components of the environment with which life interacts, such as soil, water, atmospheric gases, and light. All ecosystems make biosphere
the entire array of organisms inhabiting a particular ecosystem. Within the communities there are species such as trees, animals, fungi, bacteria, etc
consists of all individuals of a species living within the bounds of a specified area.
individual living things are called organisms. each maple tree, deer, frog, etc is an organism
Organs and Organ systems
Organs- a body part that carries out a particular function in the body.
organ systems- The organs of humans, other complex animals, and plants are organized into organ systems, each a team of organs that cooperate in a larger function.
made up of a group of cells that work together performing a specialized function. Each tissue has a distinct cellular structure
life's fundamental unit of structure and function. Amoebas and most bacteria are single cells. other organisms are multi cellular. multi cellular have division of labor between all cells. one cell is about 40 micrometers.
the various functional components present in cells. Specialized structures within a living cell
a chemical structure consisting of two or more small chemical units called atoms.
subdivided by internal membranes into various membrane-enclosed organelles. the largest organelle is the nucleus, which contains the cell's DNA. other organelles are located in the cytoplasm.
the entire region between the nucleus and outer membrane of the cell
the DNA is not separated from the rest of the cell by enclosure in a membrane bounded nucleus. Also lack the other kinds of membrane enclosed organelles that characterize eukaryotic cells.
the information in a gene directs the production of a cellular product
the entire "library" of genetic instructions that an organism inherits
studying whole sets of genes of a species as well as comparing genomes between species
the use of computational tools to tore, organize, and analyze the huge volume of data that result from high throughput methods.
a reaction that causes a decrease in function. it occurs in response to some stimuli.
an end product speeds up its own production.
what are the 3 domains in life
Domain bacteria, eukarya, and archaea
what is within the eukarya domain
plantae, fungi, protists, and animalia
what cell type are domain bacteria and archaea
evolutionary adaption where only the fittest survive
we derive generalizations from a large number of specific observations
a conclusion is based on the concordance of multiple premises that are generally assumed to be true
one that is designed to compare an experimental group with a control group
a substance that cannot be broken down to other substances by chemical reactions
a substance consisting of two or more different elements combined in a fixed ratio
elements that an organism needs to live a healthy life and reproduce. Varies among organisms
required by an organism in only minute quantities
the smallest unit of matter that still retains the properties of an element
what is in an atom
electrons, nucleus, and electrons
what is the mass of protons an neutrons
both around 1.7 X 10^-24 gram or 1 Dalton
a subscript to the left of the symbol for the element. tells us it has __ # of protons which and that same number corresponds to the # of electrons
the sum of protons and neutrons
the total mass of the atom
different atomic forms of the same element. different number of neutrons
one in which the nucleus decays spontaneously giving off particles and energy
defined as capacity to cause change
energy that matter possesses because of its location or structure
levels at different distances to the nucleus. the farther away from the nucleus the more energy
number of electrons in its outermost shell
the outermost shell
the three dimensional space where an electron is found 90% of the time
atoms staying close together, held by attractions
what are the strongest kinds of chemical bonds
covalent bonds and ionic bonds
the sharing of a pair of electrons by two atoms.
two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds constitute a molecule
a pair of shared electrons
two pairs of shared electrons
the bonding capacity
the attraction of a particular atom for the electrons of a covalent bond . the more electronegative an atom is, the more strongly it pulls shared electrons toward itself
why are electrons shared equally in a covalent bond?
because they have equal electronegativity
nonpolar covalent bond
bond between two atoms of the same element, the electrons are shared equally because the two atoms have same electronegativity so the tug of war is at a standoff
polar covalent bond
when one atom is bonded to a more electronegative atom, the electrons of the bond are not shared equally. vary in polarity
a charged atom..which is when it has either more protons than electrons or more electrons than protons
when the ion is positive..more protons than electrons
when the ion is negative...more electrons than protons
the complete transfer of an electron from one atom to another
compounds formed by ionic bonds
the noncovalent attraction between a hydrogen and an electronegative atom
van der waals interactions
electrons are not always symmetrically distributed in a nonpolar covalent bond. at any instant they accummulate by change in one part of the molecule. the results are ever changing regions of positive or negative charge that enable all atoms and molecules to stick to one another. individually weak and occur only when atoms and molecules are very close together. when many occur simultaneously they can be powerful
materials or atoms that are at first separate but will interact
the molecules that are made from the reactant
reactions are still going but with no net effect on the concentrations of reactants and products. when the forward and reverse reactions occur at the same rate
polar covalent bonds
unequal sharing of electrons between two atoms
its overall charge is unevenly distributed
the sticking together of particles of the same substance
the clinging of one substance to a different substance
a measure of how difficult it is to break the surface of a liquid
the energy of motion
form of energy, for a given body of matter the amount of heat is a measure of total KE
measure of heat intensity
amount of heat it takes to raise temp of 1g of water by 1 degree celsius
the amount of heat that must be absorbed or lost for 1 g of that substance to change its temperature by 1 degree celsius
heat of vaporization
quantity of heat a liquid must absorb for 1gram of it to be converted from the liquid to the gaseous state
as a liquid evaporates, the surface of the liquid that remains behind cools down. occurs because the "hottest" molecules are most likely to leave
mixture of two or more substances
substance being dissolved
one in which water is the solvent
sphere of water molecules around each dissolved ion
has an affinity (love for) for water
when a molecule is so large that it becomes suspended in aqueous liquid
substances that are nonionic and nonpolar that seem to repel water
the sum of the masses of all atoms in a molecule
and exact number of objects... 6.02X10^23
the number of moles of solute per liter of solution
a single proton with a charge of 1+
(OH-) which has a charge of 1-
when do hyrdoxide and hyrdonium show up?
when two water molecules are interacting and a hydrogen ion is transferred
a substance that increases the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution
a substance that reduces the hydrogen ion concentration
a substance that minimizes changes in the concentrations of H+. It does so by accepting hydrogen ions from the solution when they are in excess or donating hydrogen ions to the solution when they have been depleted
when CO2 dissolves in seawater, it reacts with water to form carbonic acid, which lowers ocean pH
study of carbon compounds
organic molecules consisting of only carbon and hydrogen
compounds that have the same numbers of atoms of the same elements but different structures and hence different properties
differ in the covalent arrangements of their atoms.
carbons have covalent bonds to the same atoms, but these atoms differ in their spatial arrangements due to the inflexibility of double bonds.
isomers that are mirror images of each other and differ in shape due to the presence of an asymmetric carbon
what is an asymmetric carbon
one that is attached to four different atoms or groups of atoms
chemical groups affect molecular function by being directly involved in chemical reactions. the chemical groups are functional groups. functional groups participate in chemical reactions in a characteristic way from one organic molecule to another
said to store energy. It is more accurate to think of it as storing the potential to react with water. this reaction releases energy that can be used by the cell.
a long molecule consisting of many similar or identical building blocks linked by covalent bonds
the building blocks that make the polymers
specialized macromolecules that speed up chemical reactions
when there is a bond in which there is a loss of a water molecule
the bond between monomers is broken by the addition of a water molecule
include sugars and polymers of sugars
generally have molecular formulas that are some multiple of the unit CH2O (glucose)...also called simple simple sugars
consists of two monosaccharides joined by a glycosidic linkage
a covalen bond formed between two monosaccharides by a dehydration reaction
macromolecules...polymers with a few hundred to a few thousand monosaccharides jjoined by glycosidic linkage
a polymer of glucose monomers
a polymer of glucose that animals store
a major component of the tough walls that enclose plant cells
a structural polysaccharide...a carbohydrate used by anthropods such as spiders and insects
a class of large biological molecules that does not include true polymers and are not big enough to be macromolecules. they mix poorly if at all with water.
has a long carbon skeleton...usually 16 to 18 carbon atoms in length.
saturated fatty acid
if there are no double bonds between carbon atoms composing a chain, then as many hydrogen atoms as possible are bonded to the carbon skeleton.. is said to be saturated with hydrogen
unsaturated fatty acid
has one or more double bonds, with one fewer hydrogen atom on each double bonded carbon. nearly all double bonds in naturally occurring fatty acids are cis double bonds, which cause a kink in the hydrocarbon chain
as a result of the hydrogenation process, having a trans arrangement of the carbon atoms adjacent to its double bonds.
they make up cell membranes..a lipid containing a phosphate group in its molecule
lipids characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of four fused rings.
a crucial molecule in animals. common component of animal cell membranes. also precursor from which other steroids are synthesized.
chemical agents that selectively speed up chemical reactions
polymers of amino acid
a biologically functional molecule that consists of one or more polypeptides, each folded and coiled into specific 3D shape
when two amino acids are positioned so that the carboxyl group of one is adjacent to the amino group o the other, they can become joined by a dehydration reaction, with the removal of a water molecule..resulting covalent bond is peptide bond
a disease that is caused by the substitution of one amino acid for the normal at a particular position in the primary structure of the hemoglobin
if the pH salt concentration, temp, or other aspects of its environment are altered, the weak chemical bonds and interactions within a protein may be destroyed causing gthe protein to unravel and lose its native shape