Chapter 1-5 VOCAB*** Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 1-5 VOCAB*** Deck (138):
1

What are some properties of life? (7)

1. Order- ordered structure that characterizes life
2. Evolutionary adaption- adaptions evolve over many generations by the reproductive success of those individuals with heritable traits that are best suited to their environment
3. response to the environment-response to the environmental stimulus
4. Reproduction- organisms reproduce their own kind
5. Growth and development- inherited info carried by genes controls the pattern of growth and development of organisms
6. energy processing- obtaining fuel (or food) and having a chemical energy to process the fuel
7. Regulation- regulation of blood through blood vessels

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emergent properties

properties that are not present at the preceding level of the organism

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Systems biology

an approach that attempts to model the dynamic behavior of whole biological systems based on a study of the interactions among the systems parts

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What are the levels of biological organization

1. The Biosphere
2. Ecosystems
3. Communities
4. Populations
5. Organisms
6. Organs and Organ Systems
7. Tissues
8. Cells
9. Organelles
10. Molecules

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The Biosphere

consists of all life on Earth and all the places where life exists-regions of land, most bodies of water, the atmosphere, etc

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Ecosystems

Grasslands, deserts, and the ocean's coral reefs are examples. An ecosystem consists of all the living things in a particular area, along with all the nonliving components of the environment with which life interacts, such as soil, water, atmospheric gases, and light. All ecosystems make biosphere

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Communities

the entire array of organisms inhabiting a particular ecosystem. Within the communities there are species such as trees, animals, fungi, bacteria, etc

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Populations

consists of all individuals of a species living within the bounds of a specified area.

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Organisms

individual living things are called organisms. each maple tree, deer, frog, etc is an organism

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Organs and Organ systems

Organs- a body part that carries out a particular function in the body.
organ systems- The organs of humans, other complex animals, and plants are organized into organ systems, each a team of organs that cooperate in a larger function.

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Tissues

made up of a group of cells that work together performing a specialized function. Each tissue has a distinct cellular structure

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Cells

life's fundamental unit of structure and function. Amoebas and most bacteria are single cells. other organisms are multi cellular. multi cellular have division of labor between all cells. one cell is about 40 micrometers.

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organelles

the various functional components present in cells. Specialized structures within a living cell

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Molecules

a chemical structure consisting of two or more small chemical units called atoms.

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eukaryotic cell

subdivided by internal membranes into various membrane-enclosed organelles. the largest organelle is the nucleus, which contains the cell's DNA. other organelles are located in the cytoplasm.

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cytoplasm

the entire region between the nucleus and outer membrane of the cell

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prokaryotic cell

the DNA is not separated from the rest of the cell by enclosure in a membrane bounded nucleus. Also lack the other kinds of membrane enclosed organelles that characterize eukaryotic cells.

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gene expression

the information in a gene directs the production of a cellular product

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genome

the entire "library" of genetic instructions that an organism inherits

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genomics

studying whole sets of genes of a species as well as comparing genomes between species

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bioinformatics

the use of computational tools to tore, organize, and analyze the huge volume of data that result from high throughput methods.

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negative feedback

a reaction that causes a decrease in function. it occurs in response to some stimuli.

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positive feedback

an end product speeds up its own production.

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what are the 3 domains in life

Domain bacteria, eukarya, and archaea

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what is within the eukarya domain

plantae, fungi, protists, and animalia

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what cell type are domain bacteria and archaea

prokaryotic cells

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natural selection

evolutionary adaption where only the fittest survive

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inductive reasoning

we derive generalizations from a large number of specific observations

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deductive reasoing

a conclusion is based on the concordance of multiple premises that are generally assumed to be true

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controlled experiment

one that is designed to compare an experimental group with a control group

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element

a substance that cannot be broken down to other substances by chemical reactions

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compound

a substance consisting of two or more different elements combined in a fixed ratio

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essential elements

elements that an organism needs to live a healthy life and reproduce. Varies among organisms

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Trace elements

required by an organism in only minute quantities

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atom

the smallest unit of matter that still retains the properties of an element

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what is in an atom

electrons, nucleus, and electrons

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what is the mass of protons an neutrons

both around 1.7 X 10^-24 gram or 1 Dalton

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atomic number

a subscript to the left of the symbol for the element. tells us it has __ # of protons which and that same number corresponds to the # of electrons

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mass number

the sum of protons and neutrons

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atomic mass

the total mass of the atom

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isotopes

different atomic forms of the same element. different number of neutrons

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radioactive isotopes

one in which the nucleus decays spontaneously giving off particles and energy

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energy

defined as capacity to cause change

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Potential energy

energy that matter possesses because of its location or structure

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electron shells

levels at different distances to the nucleus. the farther away from the nucleus the more energy

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valence electrons

number of electrons in its outermost shell

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valence shell

the outermost shell

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orbital

the three dimensional space where an electron is found 90% of the time

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chemical bonds

atoms staying close together, held by attractions

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what are the strongest kinds of chemical bonds

covalent bonds and ionic bonds

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covalent bond

the sharing of a pair of electrons by two atoms.

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molecule

two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds constitute a molecule

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single bond

a pair of shared electrons

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double bond

two pairs of shared electrons

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valence

the bonding capacity

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electronegativity

the attraction of a particular atom for the electrons of a covalent bond . the more electronegative an atom is, the more strongly it pulls shared electrons toward itself

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why are electrons shared equally in a covalent bond?

because they have equal electronegativity

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nonpolar covalent bond

bond between two atoms of the same element, the electrons are shared equally because the two atoms have same electronegativity so the tug of war is at a standoff

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polar covalent bond

when one atom is bonded to a more electronegative atom, the electrons of the bond are not shared equally. vary in polarity

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ion

a charged atom..which is when it has either more protons than electrons or more electrons than protons

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cation

when the ion is positive..more protons than electrons

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anion

when the ion is negative...more electrons than protons

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ionic bond

the complete transfer of an electron from one atom to another

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ionic compounds/salts

compounds formed by ionic bonds

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hydrogen bond

the noncovalent attraction between a hydrogen and an electronegative atom

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van der waals interactions

electrons are not always symmetrically distributed in a nonpolar covalent bond. at any instant they accummulate by change in one part of the molecule. the results are ever changing regions of positive or negative charge that enable all atoms and molecules to stick to one another. individually weak and occur only when atoms and molecules are very close together. when many occur simultaneously they can be powerful

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reactants

materials or atoms that are at first separate but will interact

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product

the molecules that are made from the reactant

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chemical equilibrium

reactions are still going but with no net effect on the concentrations of reactants and products. when the forward and reverse reactions occur at the same rate

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polar covalent bonds

unequal sharing of electrons between two atoms

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polar molecule

its overall charge is unevenly distributed

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cohesion

the sticking together of particles of the same substance

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adhesion

the clinging of one substance to a different substance

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surface tension

a measure of how difficult it is to break the surface of a liquid

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kinetic energy

the energy of motion

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heat

form of energy, for a given body of matter the amount of heat is a measure of total KE

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temperature

measure of heat intensity

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calorie

amount of heat it takes to raise temp of 1g of water by 1 degree celsius

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specific heat

the amount of heat that must be absorbed or lost for 1 g of that substance to change its temperature by 1 degree celsius

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heat of vaporization

quantity of heat a liquid must absorb for 1gram of it to be converted from the liquid to the gaseous state

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evaporative cooling

as a liquid evaporates, the surface of the liquid that remains behind cools down. occurs because the "hottest" molecules are most likely to leave

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solution

mixture of two or more substances

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solvent

dissolving agent

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solute

substance being dissolved

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aqueous solution

one in which water is the solvent

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hydration shell

sphere of water molecules around each dissolved ion

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hyrdrophilic

has an affinity (love for) for water

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colloid

when a molecule is so large that it becomes suspended in aqueous liquid

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hydrophobic

substances that are nonionic and nonpolar that seem to repel water

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molecular mass

the sum of the masses of all atoms in a molecule

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mole

and exact number of objects... 6.02X10^23

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Molarity

the number of moles of solute per liter of solution

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hydrogen ion

a single proton with a charge of 1+

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hyrdoxide ion

(OH-) which has a charge of 1-

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hyrdonium

(H3O+)

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when do hyrdoxide and hyrdonium show up?

when two water molecules are interacting and a hydrogen ion is transferred

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acid

a substance that increases the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution

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base

a substance that reduces the hydrogen ion concentration

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buffer

a substance that minimizes changes in the concentrations of H+. It does so by accepting hydrogen ions from the solution when they are in excess or donating hydrogen ions to the solution when they have been depleted

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ocean acidification

when CO2 dissolves in seawater, it reacts with water to form carbonic acid, which lowers ocean pH

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organic chemistry

study of carbon compounds

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hydrocarbons

organic molecules consisting of only carbon and hydrogen

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isomers

compounds that have the same numbers of atoms of the same elements but different structures and hence different properties

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structural isomers

differ in the covalent arrangements of their atoms.

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cis-trans isomers

carbons have covalent bonds to the same atoms, but these atoms differ in their spatial arrangements due to the inflexibility of double bonds.

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enantiomers

isomers that are mirror images of each other and differ in shape due to the presence of an asymmetric carbon

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what is an asymmetric carbon

one that is attached to four different atoms or groups of atoms

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functional groups

chemical groups affect molecular function by being directly involved in chemical reactions. the chemical groups are functional groups. functional groups participate in chemical reactions in a characteristic way from one organic molecule to another

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ATP

said to store energy. It is more accurate to think of it as storing the potential to react with water. this reaction releases energy that can be used by the cell.

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polymer

a long molecule consisting of many similar or identical building blocks linked by covalent bonds

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monomers

the building blocks that make the polymers

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enzymes

specialized macromolecules that speed up chemical reactions

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dehydration reaction

when there is a bond in which there is a loss of a water molecule

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hydrolysis

the bond between monomers is broken by the addition of a water molecule

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carbohydrates

include sugars and polymers of sugars

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monosaccharides

generally have molecular formulas that are some multiple of the unit CH2O (glucose)...also called simple simple sugars

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disaccharides

consists of two monosaccharides joined by a glycosidic linkage

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glycosidic linkage

a covalen bond formed between two monosaccharides by a dehydration reaction

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polysaccharides

macromolecules...polymers with a few hundred to a few thousand monosaccharides jjoined by glycosidic linkage

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starch

a polymer of glucose monomers

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glycogen

a polymer of glucose that animals store

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cellulose

a major component of the tough walls that enclose plant cells

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chitin

a structural polysaccharide...a carbohydrate used by anthropods such as spiders and insects

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lipids

a class of large biological molecules that does not include true polymers and are not big enough to be macromolecules. they mix poorly if at all with water.

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fatty acid

has a long carbon skeleton...usually 16 to 18 carbon atoms in length.

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saturated fatty acid

if there are no double bonds between carbon atoms composing a chain, then as many hydrogen atoms as possible are bonded to the carbon skeleton.. is said to be saturated with hydrogen

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unsaturated fatty acid

has one or more double bonds, with one fewer hydrogen atom on each double bonded carbon. nearly all double bonds in naturally occurring fatty acids are cis double bonds, which cause a kink in the hydrocarbon chain

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trans fat

as a result of the hydrogenation process, having a trans arrangement of the carbon atoms adjacent to its double bonds.

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phospholipids

they make up cell membranes..a lipid containing a phosphate group in its molecule

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steroids

lipids characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of four fused rings.

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cholesterol

a crucial molecule in animals. common component of animal cell membranes. also precursor from which other steroids are synthesized.

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catalysts

chemical agents that selectively speed up chemical reactions

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polypeptides

polymers of amino acid

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protein

a biologically functional molecule that consists of one or more polypeptides, each folded and coiled into specific 3D shape

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peptide bond

when two amino acids are positioned so that the carboxyl group of one is adjacent to the amino group o the other, they can become joined by a dehydration reaction, with the removal of a water molecule..resulting covalent bond is peptide bond

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sickle cell

a disease that is caused by the substitution of one amino acid for the normal at a particular position in the primary structure of the hemoglobin

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denaturation

if the pH salt concentration, temp, or other aspects of its environment are altered, the weak chemical bonds and interactions within a protein may be destroyed causing gthe protein to unravel and lose its native shape

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Chaperonins

protein molecules that assist in the proper folding of other proteins