Chapter 8 VOCAB*** Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 8 VOCAB*** Deck (34):
1

catabolic pathways

metabolic pathways release energy by breaking down complex molecules to simpler compounds...breakdown pathways

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anabolic pathways

consume energy to build complicated molecules from simpler ones; they are sometimes called biosynthetic pathways

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bioenergetics

the study of how energy flows through living organisms

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energy

the capacity to cause change

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kinetic energy

energy associated with the relative motion of objects

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heat/ thermal energy

kinetic energy associated with the random movement of atoms or molecules

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Potential energy

energy that matter possesses because of its location or structure

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chemical energy

the potential energy available for release in a chemical reaction

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thermodynamics

study of energy transformations that occur in a collection of matter

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First law of thermodynamics

energy of the universe is constant; energy can be transferred and transformed, but it cannot be created or destroyed....also known as principle of conservation of energy

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entropy

a measure of disorder, or randomness...the more randomly arranged a collection of matter is, the greater the entropy

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second law of thermodynamics

every energy transfer or transformation increases the entropy of the universe...although order can increase locally, there is an unstoppable trend toward randomization of the universe as a whole

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spontaneous process

a process that can occur without an input or energy

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free energy

the energy that may be extracted from a system at constant temperature and pressure

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exergonic reaction

a net release of free energy

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spontaneous

it is energetically favorable not that it will occur rapidly

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endergonic reaction

one that absorbs free energy from its surroundings

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energy coupling

the use of an exergonic process to drive an endergonic one

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enzyme

a macromolecule that acts as a catalyst

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catalyst

chemical agent that speeds up a reaction without being consumed by the reaction

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activation energy

initial investment of energy for starting a reaction-the energy required to contort the reactant molecules so the bonds can break- is known as the free energy of activation or activation energy

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substrate

the reactant an enzyme acts on

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enzyme substrate complex

this is formed when the enzyme binds to its substrate

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active site

typically a pocket or groove on the surface of the enzyme where catalysis occurs

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induced fit

brings chemical groups of the active site into positions that enhance their ability to catalyze the chemical reaction

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cofactors

the non protein helpers for catalystic activity

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coenzyme

if the cofactor is an organic molecule, it is more specifically called a coenzyme

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competitive inhibitors

reduce the productivity of enzymes by blocking substrates from entering active sites

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noncompetitive inhibitors

do not directly compete with the substrate to bind to the enzyme at the active site...instead they impede enzymatic reactions by binding to another part of the enzyme

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allosteric regulation

the term used to describe any case in which a protein's function at one site is affected by the binding of a regulatory molecule to a separate site

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cooperativity

this mechanism amplifies the response of enzymes to substrates..one substrate molecule primes an enzyme to act on additional substrate molecules more readily

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feedback inhibition

metabolic pathway is switched off by the inhibitory binding of its end product to an enzyme that acts early in the pathway

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metabolism

the totality of an organism's chemical reactions

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metabolic pathway

begins with a specific molecule, which is then altered in a series of defined steps, resulting in a certain product