Chapter 22 Flashcards Preview

AP Biology Semester 1 > Chapter 22 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 22 Deck (32):
1

evolution

descent with modification
-can be viewed as a pattern and a process

2

taxonomy

the branch of biology concerned with classifying organisms

3

who developed the binomial format for naming species?

carolus linnaeus

4

fossils

remains or traces of organisms from the past, usually found in sedimentary rock, which appears in layers or strata

5

in sedimentary rock where is the most recent fossils and where are the older fossils?

-younger fossils are more towards the top of the sedimentary rock
-older fossils are more towards the bottom of the sedimentary rock

6

paleontology

study of fossils

7

catastrophism

speculating that each boundary between strata represents a catasrophe

8

perceived changes in Earth's surface can result from _______

slow continuous actions still operating today

9

uniformitarianism

the mechanisms of change are constant over time

10

what did Lamarck hypothesize?

species evolve through use and disuse of body parts and the inheritance of acquired characteristics
-not true

11

natural selection

the mechanism of descent with modification
-individuals with favorable inherited traits are more likely to survive and reproduce
-increases the adaptation of organisms to their environment over time
-if an environment changes over time, natural selection may result in adaptation to these new conditions and may give rise to new species

12

what is descent with modification?

the view that all organisms are related through descent from an ancestor that lived in the remote past

13

artificial selection

humans have modified other species by selecting and breeding individuals with desired traits

14

what are two important observations Darwin had?

1- members of a population often vary in their inherited traits
2-all species can produce more offspring than the environment can support, and many of these offspring fail to survive and reproduce

15

From the two observations Darwin had, what are his two inferences?

1-individuals whose inherited traits give them a higher probability of surviving and reproducing in a given environment tend to leave more offspring than other individuals
2-this unequal ability of individuals to survive and reproduce will lead to the accumulation of favorable traits in the population over generations

16

if some heritable traits are advantageous, these will _____ in a population over time, and this will ______ the frequency of individuals with these traits

-accumulate
-increase

17

true or false:
individuals evolve

FALSE
-populations evolve over time

18

True or false:
natural selection can only increase or decrease heritable traits that vary in a population

TRUE

19

True or false:
Adaptation don't vary with different environments

FALSE
adaptations vary with different environments

20

Can natural selection make up new traits?

no, it can only edit or select for traits already present in the population

21

homology

similarity resulting from common ancestry

22

homologous structures

anatomical resemblances that represent variations on a structural theme present in a common ancestor

23

comparative embryology

reveals anatomical homologies not visible in adult organsims

24

vestigial structures

remnants of features that served important functions in the organism's ancestors

25

evolutionary trees

hypotheses about the relationships among different groups

26

convergent evolution

evolution of similar, or analogous, features in distantly related groups

27

when do analogous traits arise?

when groups independently adapt to similar environments in similar ways

28

does convergent evolution provide info about ancestry?

NO

29

Fossil record

provides evidence of the extinction of species, the origin of new groups, and changes within groups over time

30

biogeography

the geographic distribution of species, provides evidence of evolution

31

pangea

when earth's continents were formerly united in a single large continent

32

endemic species

species that are not found anywhere else in the world