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0

Homogeneous mixtures( solutions) are formed when 1 _______ disperses uniformly throughout another ______.

Solute
Slovent

1

As a solution forms, the solvent pulls solute particles apart and surrounds them.( if its in water, what is this process called?)

Solvation

2

In the absense of a strong solvent-solute attraction, the particles randomly spread out. This is typical for nonpolar solutions.

Dispersion

3

The ability of substances to form solutions depends on 2 factors.

1. Type of intermolecular interactions involved
2. Entropy

4

Natural tendency of substances to spread into larger volumes when not restrained.

Entropy

5

There are three forces at work during solvation.

1. break solvent-solvent attractio
2.break solute-solute attraction
3. Make solvent-salute attraction

6

Intermolecular forces that are the strongest when breaking solvent-solvent attraction.

Hydrogen bonding and dipole-dipole

7

Intermolecular force is the easiest to break in a solvent-solvent attraction.

London forces

8

Intermolecular forces that are the strongest when breaking solute-solute attraction.

Ionic, metallic

9

Intermolecular forces that are not as strong and not as weak to break in a solute-solute attraction.

Hydrogen bonding and dipole-dipole

10

Intermolecular forces that are easiest to break in a solute-solute attraction.

Lodon forces

11

Intermolecular force is the hardest to break in a solvent-solute attraction.

Ion – dipole, hydrogen bonding, and dipole – dipole

12

Intermolecular force is the easiest to break in a solvent-solute attraction.

Ion– Induced dipole, dipole – induced dipole, and London forces

13

Three processes that affects energetics of solution

1.Separation of solute particles
2.separation of solvent particles
3.New interactions between solute and solvent

14

Separation of solute particles is a________process

Endothermic

15

Separation of solvent particles is____________process

Endothermic

16

Interactions between salute installment are a___________process

Exothermic

17

Things do not tend to occur spontaneously unless ...

The energy of the system is lower (overall exothermic)

18

What does the order of randomness of the system tend to do to the energy of the system ?
Dissolving is therefore what kind of reaction?

It tends to lower the energy
Disolving is a spontaneous reaction

19

Even though enthalpy may increase,the overall energy of the system can still decrease in the system becomes more what?


Disordered

20

Physical change – you can get back the original solute by evaporating the solvent

Dissolution

21

In this type of solution, the solvent holds as much solute as is possible at that temperature

Saturated

22

In a saturated solution the dissolved solute is in a dynamic__________
with solid solute particles

Equilibrium

23

In this type of solution less solute that can be dissolved in the solvent at that temperature is dissolved in the solvent.

Unsaturated

24

This type of solution the solvent holds more solute that is normally possible at that temperature.The solutions are unstable; Crystillization can usually be stimulated by adding a "seed crystal" or scratching the side of the flask.

Supersaturated solution

25

Like dissolves like states that polar substances tend to dissolve in_________solvents. Nonpolar substances tend to dissolve in________ solvents.

Polar nonpolar

26

What is the relationship between intermolecular attractions and solubility in water?

The more similar the intermolecular attractions, the more likely one substance is to be soluble in another

27

The solubility of a gas in a liquid is_________to its pressure.

Directly proportional
(Henry's law)

28

Equation for Henry's law

S1/P1=S2/P2

29

Generally, the solubility of solid solutes in liquid solvents_______with increasing temperature. The opposite is true of gases.

Increases