AP Chem. Ch.8-9 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in AP Chem. Ch.8-9 Deck (50)
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Which are the three basic types of bonds?

Ionic
Covalent
Metallic

1

Driving force among all types of bonding?

Electrostatic

2

-electrostatic attractions between ions
-metal w/ nonmetal

Ionic bond

3

-sharing of electrons
-nonmetal w/ nonmetal

Covalent bond

4

-metal atoms bonded to several other atoms
Metal w/ metal

Metallic

5

All chemical bonds form b/c the electron-proton attraction _______ the potential energy of the system as the bond forms

Lowers

6

Balance between the attractiobs of the oppositely charged particles and repulsions of the like charged particles

Distance between the bonded particles

7

Electrons involved in bonding

Balance electrons

8

Where are balance electrons found?

In the incomplete, outer most shell of an atom.

9

Atoms tend to gain, lose, or share electrons until they are surrounded by eight valence electrons

Octet rule

10

Which subshells does an octet consist of?

S^2, P^6 subshells

11

-Energy required to completely separate a mole of a solid ionic compound into its gaseous ions.
-increases with the CHARGE on the ions.
-increases w/ the DECREASING SIZE of ions.

Lattice energy

12

What 2 factors affect lattice energy??

Charge and size

13

Thermodynamic cycle that analyzes lattice energy precisely.

Born-harber cycle

14

Three electrostatic interactions in covalent bonds:

-Attraction between electrons and nuclei
-repulsions between electrons
-repulsions between nuclei

15

Sharing of 1 pair of e- bettwen atoms.

Single covalent bond

16

Pair of electrons that is not being shared.

Unshared pair

17

Which atoms can form multiple bonds??

C, N, O, S

18

Sharing of 2 pairs of e- between atoms.

Double covalent bond

19

Aharing of 3 pairs of electrons between atoms.

Triple covalent bond

20

Equal sharing of electrons.

Nonpolar covalent

21

Unequal sharing of electrons

Polar covalent

22

The ability of atoms in a molecule to attract electrons to themselves
Increases accros the period, decreases down a column

Electronegativity

23

Representations of molecules shoeing all electrons, bonding and nonbonding

Lewis structures

24

How to find formal change

-count # of valence electrons
-add up the number of unshared electrons to half the number of shared electrons.
-subtract this value from the # of valence electrons.

25

Which are the 3 types of ions that dont follow the octet rule?

-ions or molecules with an odd number of electrons
- ions or molecules with less than an octet
-ions or molecules

26

How many bonds does H need to b stable?

1 bond( 2 electrons)

27

How many bonds does Be need for it to b stable??

2 bonds( 4 electrons)

28

How many bonds does B need for it to be stable??

3 bonds( 6 electrons)

29

Atoms from the ____ period(and below) can accomodate more than an octet.

Third. _ _
Ex: PCl5, SF4, AsF6 , and ICl4