Flashcards in AP Chem. Ch.8-9 Deck (50)
Which are the three basic types of bonds?
Driving force among all types of bonding?
-electrostatic attractions between ions
-metal w/ nonmetal
-sharing of electrons
-nonmetal w/ nonmetal
-metal atoms bonded to several other atoms
Metal w/ metal
All chemical bonds form b/c the electron-proton attraction _______ the potential energy of the system as the bond forms
Balance between the attractiobs of the oppositely charged particles and repulsions of the like charged particles
Distance between the bonded particles
Electrons involved in bonding
Where are balance electrons found?
In the incomplete, outer most shell of an atom.
Atoms tend to gain, lose, or share electrons until they are surrounded by eight valence electrons
Which subshells does an octet consist of?
S^2, P^6 subshells
-Energy required to completely separate a mole of a solid ionic compound into its gaseous ions.
-increases with the CHARGE on the ions.
-increases w/ the DECREASING SIZE of ions.
What 2 factors affect lattice energy??
Charge and size
Thermodynamic cycle that analyzes lattice energy precisely.
Three electrostatic interactions in covalent bonds:
-Attraction between electrons and nuclei
-repulsions between electrons
-repulsions between nuclei
Sharing of 1 pair of e- bettwen atoms.
Single covalent bond
Pair of electrons that is not being shared.
Which atoms can form multiple bonds??
C, N, O, S
Sharing of 2 pairs of e- between atoms.
Double covalent bond
Aharing of 3 pairs of electrons between atoms.
Triple covalent bond
Equal sharing of electrons.
Unequal sharing of electrons
The ability of atoms in a molecule to attract electrons to themselves
Increases accros the period, decreases down a column
Representations of molecules shoeing all electrons, bonding and nonbonding
How to find formal change
-count # of valence electrons
-add up the number of unshared electrons to half the number of shared electrons.
-subtract this value from the # of valence electrons.
Which are the 3 types of ions that dont follow the octet rule?
-ions or molecules with an odd number of electrons
- ions or molecules with less than an octet
-ions or molecules
How many bonds does H need to b stable?
1 bond( 2 electrons)
How many bonds does Be need for it to b stable??
2 bonds( 4 electrons)
How many bonds does B need for it to be stable??
3 bonds( 6 electrons)