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When an ionic substance dissolves in water, the solvent pulls the individual ions from the crystals and solvates them.

Dissociation

1

Solutions in which water is the solvent

Aqueous solutions

2

If a substance froms ions in solution, then the substance is an ________, and the solution________electricity.

Electrolyte
Conducts

3

If a substance does not form ions in a solution, then the substance is ___________, and the solution ________electricity.

Nonelectrolyte
Does not conduct

4

Molecular solutions do not conduct electricity but there are important exceptions. Give 2 examples:

1.NH3(gas) reacts with water to form NH4+(aq) and
OH-(aq)
2. HCl(gas) ionizes in water to form H3O+(aq) and
Cl-(aq)

5

Compounds that ________________ are strong electrolytes.

Ionize completely

6

Which are strong electrolytes

Strong acids
Strong bases
Soluble ionic compounds

7

Compounds that ____________ are weak electrolytes

Partially ionize

8

Reactions that result in the formation of an insoluble product.

Precipitation

9

A substance with a solubility of lesss than ____mol/L is regarded as being INSOLUBLE

0.01

10

Which substances are always soluble?

Sodium
Potassium
Ammonium
Nitrates

11

Substances that are able to ionize in aqueous solution to increase the concentration of H+.

Arrhenius Acids

12

Acids that ionize to form one H+ ion

Monoprotic acids

13

Acids that ionize to form two H+ ions .

Diprotic acids

14

Acids that ionize to form three H+ ions

Triprotic acids

15

Know these seven strong acids

- hydrochloric (HCl)
- hydrobromic(HBr)
- hydroiodic(HI)
- nitric(HNO3)
- sulfuric(H2SO4)
- chloric(HClO3)
- perchloric(HClO4)

16

Substances that increase concentration of OH- when dissolved in water.

Arrhenius bases

17

Brønsted and Lowry defined arrhenius bases as proton...

Acceptors

18

Know the 8 strong bases:

Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Ca, Sr, Ba

19

Occurs when an acid and a base react to generally form a salt and water.

Neutralization reaction

20

Any ionic compound whose cation comes from a base and anion from an acid.

Salt

21

The net ionic equation of a strong acid – base neutralization reaction reduces the formation of what?

Water

22

In a strong acid and weak base neutralization, the weak base ____dissociate and the net ionic equation will not simplify to only the formation of water.

Does not

23

to acid – base reactions that are a little bit different. Acid – base reactions with gas formation.

1. Sulfides will form a gas and a salt(H2S(gas))
2. Carbonates and hydrogen carbonates will form a GASEOUS PRODUCT, CO2, and H2O when treated with an acid.

24

Reactions that involve transfer of electrons between reactants.

Oxidation-Reduction or redox reactions

25

when a substance loses electrons, it undergoes _____ in a redox reaction.

Oxidation

26

When a substance games electrons, it undergoes _______in a redox reaction

Reduction