Ap Chem. Ch. 17 Flashcards Preview

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What does the common-ion effect state?

A weak electrolyte will ionize less when a strong electrolyte with a common ion is added to the solution.
Ex: +
CH3COOH + H2OH3O + CH3COO-
-if NaCH3COO is added, the acetic acid will ionize less!

1

What are buffers?

Solutions of a weak conjugate acid-base pair.

2

Buffers are resistant to pH changes, even when strong acid or base is added, why?

Because it contains both an acid to neutralize OH- ions and a base to neutralize H+ ions

3

What are three ways of making buffers?

1.by mixing a weak acid or weak base with a salt
2.by partial neutralization of a weak acid with a strong base.
3. by partial neutralization of a conjugate base from a salt

4

3 factors that affect the solubility of ionic compounds:

1.presence of common ions
2.the pH of the solution
3.the presence of complex agents

5

When a small amount of OH- is added to the buffer (HXH+ + X-), the OH- reacts with HX to produce X- and water. What happens to the [HX]/[X-] ratio and pH?

The [HX]/[X-] ratio remains more or less constant, so the pH is not significantly changed.

6

When a small amount of [H+] is added to a buffer ( HX H+ + X- ), X- is consumed to produce HX. What happens to the ratio of [HX]/[X-] and pH?

Their ratio is more or less constant, so the pH does not change significantly.

7

Henderson-Hasselbalch equation

PH= pKa + log[base/acid]

8

At [base]=[acid],
pH?pKa

pH=pKa

9

At [base]<[acid]
pH?pKa

pH

10

[base]>[acid]
pH?pKa

pH>pKa

11

When do buffers resist a change in pH in either direction ?

If the weak acid and its conjugate base are equimolar.

12

In this technique a known concentration of base(or acid) is slowly added to a solution of acid(or base).

Acid-base titrations

13

Titration of a strong acid with a strong base:
1. At the start the pH is determined by the acid.(no base has been added)
What equation is used?

pH=-log[acid]

14

Titration of a strong acid with a strong base.
2.after the start of the titration to near the equivalence point, the pH goes up slowly(when adding base). What equation is used?

[H+]=(mol H+) - (mol OH-)/total volume

15

Titration of a strong acid with a strong base:
3.at the equivalence point, moles acid=moles base, and the solution only contains water and the salt from the cation of the strong base and the anion of the strong acid.

PH=7

16

Titration of a strong acid with a strong base
4. As more base is added, the increase in pH again levels of (excess base). What is the equation?

[OH-]=(mol OH-) - (mol H+)/total volume

17

Titration of a Weak Acid with a strong base. Three things to remember!

1.the conjugate Base of the acid affects the pH when it is formed.
2. At the equivalence point the pH>7
3.Phenolphthalein is commonly used as an indicator in these titrations.

18

Titration of a Weak Acid with a strong base.
1.at the start, the pH is determined by the concentration of the weak acid and Ka.what equation is used?

Ka= x^2/ HA-x (just a normal Ka problem)

19

Titration of a Weak Acid with a strong base.
2.Between the initial pH and the equivalence point, a partial neutralization creates a buffer solution.
What equation is used?(half equivalence point. [HA]=[A-] and pH=pKa)

Find the[HA] and the [A-] and use Henderson-Hasselbalch to calculate

20

At what point during the titration should the indicator change color?

At the equivalence point

21

Titration of a Weak Acid with a strong base.
3. At the equivalence point, the H+ and OH- neutralize each other, but the weak base, [A-] WILL CAUSE THE SOLUTION TO BE SLIGHTLY BASIC. What equation should you use?

Use the Kb of the weak base,[A-], to calculate the pH.

22

Titration of a Weak Acid with a strong base.
4. After the equivalence point, the weak base contribution is NEGLIGIBLE, compared to the [OH-].
What equation is used?

[OH-] = (mol OH-) - (mol H+)/ total volume

23

When one titrates a polypeptide acid with a base, there is an __________ for each dissociation.

Equivalence point

24

Solubility product

Ksp

25

What does the common-ion effect do to the solubility of a weak electrolyte?

The presence of a common ion reduces the solubility equilibrium of the weak electrolyte, shifting the solubility equilibrium of the weak electrolyte to the left.

26

The pH of a solution will affect the solubility of any substance whose anions is _____.

Basic

27

If a compound contains a basic anion( the anion of a weak acid), what will happen to its solubility as the solution becomes more acidic?

It's solubility will increase

28

The solubility of slightly soluble salts containing basic anions increases as what increases?

[H+] increases(as pH is lowered)

29

The more basic the anion, the more the solubility is influenced by what??

pH