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Flashcards in AP World History Deck (94):
0

When did the Homo sapiens, or first humans, emerge?

250,000 years ago

1

What happened when small clans developed?

every generation moved 2-3 miles

2

When was the world populated?

10000 BCE

3

What is the "Africa Theory"

All human development began in Africa, moved outward

4

What does Paleo mean?

Old Stone

5

What happened in the hunter-gatherer society?

Hunter-Gatherers
Patterns develop
form clans of 30
moved frequently
rough gender equality
women stayed closer to camp, while men hunted
adapting was necessary for survival

6

When was the neolithic reolution?

10000-4000 BCE

7

How did people from the Neolithic age get their food?

it was produced instead of gathered

8

What happened to animals over time in the neolithic revolution?

animals domesticated over time

9

What happened during the neolithic revolution?

settled into communities
These were still relatively nomadic

10

What happened because of growth of farming?

permanent settlements develop with better farming
catal huyuk
home placement
food surplus leads to more time for leisure (specialized labor)
Polytheistic Religious traditions "Mother Earth"

11

What were the consequences of the Neolithic Era?

Settlement leads to trade, but also a need for protection
specialization of labor
men remained in the field, while women were relegated to household tasks
gender inequality develops
eventually, the patriarchal society and the need for protection would change the village

12

What was needed as communities became permanent?

protection and structure

13

How do civilizations develop

with the onset of several basic factors

14

How do you define a civilization?

an urban focus
political and military structures
social structures built on economic power
material culture
distinct religious structure
development of writing
new artistic and intellectual activity

15

What are the three theories of the causes of civilization ?

1. uniting under a common religious practice led to the formation of civilizations
2. specialization of labor, and more wealth allowed for government structure
3. the had to adapt, and this meant creating a stable environment for survival

16

What was the basis of Sumer?

city-states

17

What was the mesopotamian religion?

polytheistic (the gods looked over the cities)

18

In mesopotamia, what was constructed for worship?

Ziggurats

19

What was mesopotamian's origin of government?

Theocracy

20

What were kings regarded as?

near-Gods

21

Where did kings live in Mesopotamia?

elaborate homes, just like priests

22

Who did Mesopotamia trade with?

India and Eastern Med.

23

What was the government and social life in Mesopotamia?

Class System
Surgon and the Akkadians
Cuneiform

24

What country was extremely similar to Mesopotamia?

Egypt

25

How many kingdoms was Egypt divided into?

Three, all under a dynastic rule

26

In Egypt, who was regarded as near Gods?

Pharaohs

27

What were the upper classes in Egypt?

merchants and artisans

28

What were the burial methods in Egypt?

mummification
pyramids

29

What was the final stable era in Ancient Egypt

The New Kingdom

30

Who was driven out of Egypt?

Hyksos (introduced the chariot)

31

Who attempted to make Egypt monotheistic, only worshiping the sun god?

Akhenaten

32

Who helped return tradition to Egypt?

King Tut

33

Who led the Persian Empire?

Cyrus (very expansive empire)

34

What did Cyrus take?

most of Asia and the Middle East

35

What did Cyrus do?

set up as satrapies
individual provinces
major religion
Zorastrianism
struggle between good and evil, use of a final judgement

36

When did the Aryans arrive in India?

1250 BCE

37

There was a king within tribes in India, how did he gain power?

through the ability to protect his people (Maharaja)

38

When did the Hellenistic Empire have dominance?

330 BCE

39

Mauryan Dynasty

Chandragupta Maurya advised through the Arthasastra
Emphasizes ends rather than means
a highly centralized government structure
large secret police to deal with any issues
he was a little paranoid
Division of Empire is similar to Persia, provinces and Districts

40

What is the Caste System in India?

Hierarchal division that defined a person's occupation and status
lighter skin exemplified a higher class
it was a strict system that had no movement or interaction between castes
"Untouchables" not considered part of the caste system

41

What was life like in ancient india?

the family often had several generations under one roof
male dominated society
polygamy occurred rarely in higher castes
sati-theritual in which the wife throws herself into husbands funeral pyre

42

What was trade and economy like in India?

Agriculture expands throughout the empire
unpredictable monsoons make it difficult
became an advanced trading and manufacturing area
spices, perfume, textiles, ivory
Mauryan Dyasty would tax the trade sector, and controlled sections of trade

43

Brahmanism and Hinduism

Early Religious Beliefs of the Aryan population
Polytheistic initially, relying on several gods
Represented the needs of humans, such as fire, fertility, health, and weather conditions.
Ascetism-self-discipline or painful stimuli to communicate with gods.
gradually turns into yoga

44

Reincarnation

Appeared around the time of the Upanishades
individual soul is reborn in a different form after death
Karma- one's rebirth is dictated by their actions in the previous life
Dharma- moral law
HIgher castes are held to a much stricter standard
eventually a trinity of gods is the norm
Brahman, Vishnu, and Shiva

45

Buddhism

founded by Siddhartha Gautama
He was wealthy, but he saw the death and illness of the lower castes
dedicated life to determining causes of human suffering

46

What are the basic beliefs of Buddhism?

Reformist version of Brahmanism
Agreed on the concept of Nirvana, reaching enlightenment
Remove material possessions, this is the cause of pain and poverty
four noble truths
the eight fold path
rejected the baste system even though he believed in reincarnation

47

Ashoka and the end of the Mauryan Dynasty

Ashoka begins reign as a ruthless leader, killing anyone as he wished.
Converted to Buddhism, and considered the greatest ruler of the Mauryan dynasty.
People convert and the religion spreads east

48

Why did India die out?

a decline in regional trade
tribal rivalries

49

When was the Shang Dynasty?

2000 BCE

50

What were oracle bones used for?

to communicate with the gods

51

What was a king in the Shang dynasty

an intermediary between humans and God

52

What was the veneration of Ancestors?

Burning replicas of objects to accompany departed
human sacrifice used to give servants to a higher official after death

53

What was the Shang dynasty known for?

their mastery of using bronze

54

What was the Shang Theory?

Old Theory stated that civilization started at Yellow River and radiated outward
Now historians believe that civilization in China rose in several places, and all had similar technology

55

Zhou Dynasty

Longest Dynasty in China, beginning in 1100 BCE
Overthrew the Shang, spread the message of the Mandate of Heaven
The Gods place a new person in power when the old king is corrupt
Political system similar to Shang, with a centralized authority and provinces.
Emergence of religious philosophy

56

COnfucianism

Behave according to Dao
Political and Ethical
Duty-sacrifice for the needs of the family and community
Humanity- do not do unto others which should not be done unto you

57

Daoism

The philosophy of inaction
Let nature take its course
Laozi
it was an escape to political leaders

58

When was the Qin Dynasty?

226 BCE

59

WHo was the centralized ruler during the Qin dynasty?

Qin Shi Huangdi

60

What did Qin Shi Huangdi do?

mobilized peasants to manual labor
forced to work on his tomb OR Great Wall
followed a legalist philosophy
humans were naturally evil and would only follow the correct path if led by harsh laws and punishments
action by the state would bring order

61

What was the Greek Polis?

an autonomous political and social unit
the geography of Greece required this form of civilization

62

What led to tension in Greece?

city-states were independent of one another

63

What was the battle formation in Greece

Phalanx Formation

64

Sparta

made the effort to create a military state
life is rigidly organized
allowed to marry at 20
enters military at 30
works until he is 60
oligarchy led by two kings
ephors used to maintain conduct
deliberate isolation

65

Athens

considered a tyranny under Pisistratus
Solon had attempted to avoid this
Cleisthenes creates council of 500, assembly had final say on all laws
adopts traditions from other cultures
louros adapted from Egypt
utilized part of the Phoenician Alphabet

66

THe Persian War

fundamental differences and territory leads to war
Xerxes wants to finish the job that Darius I started
Themistocles begins development of a Navy in Athens
Sparta and Athens Ally
Majoy battles
Thermopylae
Sacking of Athens
Salamis

67

A Golden Age

Delian League formed all city states paid tribute to Athens.
Pericles expanded Democracy
Tensions rise between Sparta and Athens ]Art and Architecture flourish

68

When was the Peloponnesian conflict?

431 BCE

69

WHat did Sparta form during the Peloponnesian ConflictA?

Peloponnesian League

70

How did Pericles defeat Sparta?

Navy

71

How was Greece weakened?

constant warfare

72

When did Philip II of Macedon become king?

359 BC

73

When did Philip defeat Thebes and Athens and the battle of Chaeronea, then he unites Greece?

338 BC

74

When was Philip II assassinated?

336 BC

75

How old was Alexander when he took over?

20

76

When was Persia completely destroyed?

331 BC

77

WHy is Alexander so Great?

married his Macedonian troops with Persians to promote unity in the empire

78

What does Hellenistic mean?

Greek-like

79

Why did the Roman Republic decline?

greed and oppression

80

Who were the brothers who worked for the poor and the prosperous senators killed them?

Gracchi

81

Who took over Rome after Caesar?

Octavian

82

What did Octavian change his name to?

Augustus

83

Pax Romana

Supported beneficial domestic policies
treated ruling classes with respect
Capable men chosen to succeed the prior emperor
imperial officials controlled the government
population rivaling Han China by 2nd century CE (50 million)

84

What was the culture and society during the Pax Romana?

Rome took ideas from Greece
Columns, Rectangular forms
Excelled in arches and domed structures
Aqueducts, colosseum
Realistic frescoes adorned walls of wealthy citizens

85

What was the Civil Law during the Pax Romana?

Twelve Tables created during the Republic
Adapted into a code of Civil Law
Added LAw of nations to deal with foreign conquests
Standards of Justice
Innocent until proven guilty
Allowed a defense
Universal laws based on reason

86

What was the crisis in the Late Roman Empire?

Empire became too large.
Military dictators take over, most of which meet a violent death
inflation causes monetary issues
couldn't pay or enlist more soldiers
end up hiring Germans to fight under Roman commanders

87

Roman Division

Diocletain
284 AD- 305 AD
Empire too large for one person
Co-emperor for western half
Government controlled everything
Succession Rule

88

What did controlling the empire start off with during the Han dynasty?

feudal system

89

What was the Han dynasty a blend of?

legalist philosophy and confucianism without the sin and voilence, civil service examinations taxation common had to be paid in cash peasants at a disadvantage

90

What was the economy and military like during the Han dynasty

Han Suspicious of private merchants
Heavy taxation
not allowed to be in public office
relied on waterways for transportation
military originally required
professional armies adopted

91

What was Imperial expansion

Silk Road becomes a dominant trade route
Tiberius- the ladies are transferring our money to foreigners
Paper is invented
Great Wall expanded under the Han (not the one today)

92

What was religion and culture like during the Han Dynasty

Confucianism is official religion
Buddhism begins showing up in western china
Qin idea of terra cotta army is continued under the Han
Modest Scale

93

Why did the Han empire decline?

emperors more worried about material goods than control
noble families take over vast areas of China, continuing a feudal existence
corruption in the government led to unrest by peasantry
invasion by northern nomadic tribes common
four hundred years of anarchy and military rule follow