Flashcards in AP World History Deck (94):
When did the Homo sapiens, or first humans, emerge?
250,000 years ago
What happened when small clans developed?
every generation moved 2-3 miles
When was the world populated?
What is the "Africa Theory"
All human development began in Africa, moved outward
What does Paleo mean?
What happened in the hunter-gatherer society?
form clans of 30
rough gender equality
women stayed closer to camp, while men hunted
adapting was necessary for survival
When was the neolithic reolution?
How did people from the Neolithic age get their food?
it was produced instead of gathered
What happened to animals over time in the neolithic revolution?
animals domesticated over time
What happened during the neolithic revolution?
settled into communities
These were still relatively nomadic
What happened because of growth of farming?
permanent settlements develop with better farming
food surplus leads to more time for leisure (specialized labor)
Polytheistic Religious traditions "Mother Earth"
What were the consequences of the Neolithic Era?
Settlement leads to trade, but also a need for protection
specialization of labor
men remained in the field, while women were relegated to household tasks
gender inequality develops
eventually, the patriarchal society and the need for protection would change the village
What was needed as communities became permanent?
protection and structure
How do civilizations develop
with the onset of several basic factors
How do you define a civilization?
an urban focus
political and military structures
social structures built on economic power
distinct religious structure
development of writing
new artistic and intellectual activity
What are the three theories of the causes of civilization ?
1. uniting under a common religious practice led to the formation of civilizations
2. specialization of labor, and more wealth allowed for government structure
3. the had to adapt, and this meant creating a stable environment for survival
What was the basis of Sumer?
What was the mesopotamian religion?
polytheistic (the gods looked over the cities)
In mesopotamia, what was constructed for worship?
What was mesopotamian's origin of government?
What were kings regarded as?
Where did kings live in Mesopotamia?
elaborate homes, just like priests
Who did Mesopotamia trade with?
India and Eastern Med.
What was the government and social life in Mesopotamia?
Surgon and the Akkadians
What country was extremely similar to Mesopotamia?
How many kingdoms was Egypt divided into?
Three, all under a dynastic rule
In Egypt, who was regarded as near Gods?
What were the upper classes in Egypt?
merchants and artisans
What were the burial methods in Egypt?
What was the final stable era in Ancient Egypt
The New Kingdom
Who was driven out of Egypt?
Hyksos (introduced the chariot)
Who attempted to make Egypt monotheistic, only worshiping the sun god?
Who helped return tradition to Egypt?
Who led the Persian Empire?
Cyrus (very expansive empire)
What did Cyrus take?
most of Asia and the Middle East
What did Cyrus do?
set up as satrapies
struggle between good and evil, use of a final judgement
When did the Aryans arrive in India?
There was a king within tribes in India, how did he gain power?
through the ability to protect his people (Maharaja)
When did the Hellenistic Empire have dominance?
Chandragupta Maurya advised through the Arthasastra
Emphasizes ends rather than means
a highly centralized government structure
large secret police to deal with any issues
he was a little paranoid
Division of Empire is similar to Persia, provinces and Districts
What is the Caste System in India?
Hierarchal division that defined a person's occupation and status
lighter skin exemplified a higher class
it was a strict system that had no movement or interaction between castes
"Untouchables" not considered part of the caste system
What was life like in ancient india?
the family often had several generations under one roof
male dominated society
polygamy occurred rarely in higher castes
sati-theritual in which the wife throws herself into husbands funeral pyre
What was trade and economy like in India?
Agriculture expands throughout the empire
unpredictable monsoons make it difficult
became an advanced trading and manufacturing area
spices, perfume, textiles, ivory
Mauryan Dyasty would tax the trade sector, and controlled sections of trade
Brahmanism and Hinduism
Early Religious Beliefs of the Aryan population
Polytheistic initially, relying on several gods
Represented the needs of humans, such as fire, fertility, health, and weather conditions.
Ascetism-self-discipline or painful stimuli to communicate with gods.
gradually turns into yoga
Appeared around the time of the Upanishades
individual soul is reborn in a different form after death
Karma- one's rebirth is dictated by their actions in the previous life
Dharma- moral law
HIgher castes are held to a much stricter standard
eventually a trinity of gods is the norm
Brahman, Vishnu, and Shiva
founded by Siddhartha Gautama
He was wealthy, but he saw the death and illness of the lower castes
dedicated life to determining causes of human suffering
What are the basic beliefs of Buddhism?
Reformist version of Brahmanism
Agreed on the concept of Nirvana, reaching enlightenment
Remove material possessions, this is the cause of pain and poverty
four noble truths
the eight fold path
rejected the baste system even though he believed in reincarnation
Ashoka and the end of the Mauryan Dynasty
Ashoka begins reign as a ruthless leader, killing anyone as he wished.
Converted to Buddhism, and considered the greatest ruler of the Mauryan dynasty.
People convert and the religion spreads east
Why did India die out?
a decline in regional trade
When was the Shang Dynasty?
What were oracle bones used for?
to communicate with the gods
What was a king in the Shang dynasty
an intermediary between humans and God
What was the veneration of Ancestors?
Burning replicas of objects to accompany departed
human sacrifice used to give servants to a higher official after death
What was the Shang dynasty known for?
their mastery of using bronze
What was the Shang Theory?
Old Theory stated that civilization started at Yellow River and radiated outward
Now historians believe that civilization in China rose in several places, and all had similar technology
Longest Dynasty in China, beginning in 1100 BCE
Overthrew the Shang, spread the message of the Mandate of Heaven
The Gods place a new person in power when the old king is corrupt
Political system similar to Shang, with a centralized authority and provinces.
Emergence of religious philosophy
Behave according to Dao
Political and Ethical
Duty-sacrifice for the needs of the family and community
Humanity- do not do unto others which should not be done unto you
The philosophy of inaction
Let nature take its course
it was an escape to political leaders
When was the Qin Dynasty?
WHo was the centralized ruler during the Qin dynasty?
Qin Shi Huangdi
What did Qin Shi Huangdi do?
mobilized peasants to manual labor
forced to work on his tomb OR Great Wall
followed a legalist philosophy
humans were naturally evil and would only follow the correct path if led by harsh laws and punishments
action by the state would bring order
What was the Greek Polis?
an autonomous political and social unit
the geography of Greece required this form of civilization
What led to tension in Greece?
city-states were independent of one another
What was the battle formation in Greece
made the effort to create a military state
life is rigidly organized
allowed to marry at 20
enters military at 30
works until he is 60
oligarchy led by two kings
ephors used to maintain conduct
considered a tyranny under Pisistratus
Solon had attempted to avoid this
Cleisthenes creates council of 500, assembly had final say on all laws
adopts traditions from other cultures
louros adapted from Egypt
utilized part of the Phoenician Alphabet
THe Persian War
fundamental differences and territory leads to war
Xerxes wants to finish the job that Darius I started
Themistocles begins development of a Navy in Athens
Sparta and Athens Ally
Sacking of Athens
A Golden Age
Delian League formed all city states paid tribute to Athens.
Pericles expanded Democracy
Tensions rise between Sparta and Athens ]Art and Architecture flourish
When was the Peloponnesian conflict?
WHat did Sparta form during the Peloponnesian ConflictA?
How did Pericles defeat Sparta?
How was Greece weakened?
When did Philip II of Macedon become king?
When did Philip defeat Thebes and Athens and the battle of Chaeronea, then he unites Greece?
When was Philip II assassinated?
How old was Alexander when he took over?
When was Persia completely destroyed?
WHy is Alexander so Great?
married his Macedonian troops with Persians to promote unity in the empire
What does Hellenistic mean?
Why did the Roman Republic decline?
greed and oppression
Who were the brothers who worked for the poor and the prosperous senators killed them?
Who took over Rome after Caesar?
What did Octavian change his name to?
Supported beneficial domestic policies
treated ruling classes with respect
Capable men chosen to succeed the prior emperor
imperial officials controlled the government
population rivaling Han China by 2nd century CE (50 million)
What was the culture and society during the Pax Romana?
Rome took ideas from Greece
Columns, Rectangular forms
Excelled in arches and domed structures
Realistic frescoes adorned walls of wealthy citizens
What was the Civil Law during the Pax Romana?
Twelve Tables created during the Republic
Adapted into a code of Civil Law
Added LAw of nations to deal with foreign conquests
Standards of Justice
Innocent until proven guilty
Allowed a defense
Universal laws based on reason
What was the crisis in the Late Roman Empire?
Empire became too large.
Military dictators take over, most of which meet a violent death
inflation causes monetary issues
couldn't pay or enlist more soldiers
end up hiring Germans to fight under Roman commanders
284 AD- 305 AD
Empire too large for one person
Co-emperor for western half
Government controlled everything
What did controlling the empire start off with during the Han dynasty?
What was the Han dynasty a blend of?
legalist philosophy and confucianism without the sin and voilence, civil service examinations taxation common had to be paid in cash peasants at a disadvantage
What was the economy and military like during the Han dynasty
Han Suspicious of private merchants
not allowed to be in public office
relied on waterways for transportation
military originally required
professional armies adopted
What was Imperial expansion
Silk Road becomes a dominant trade route
Tiberius- the ladies are transferring our money to foreigners
Paper is invented
Great Wall expanded under the Han (not the one today)
What was religion and culture like during the Han Dynasty
Confucianism is official religion
Buddhism begins showing up in western china
Qin idea of terra cotta army is continued under the Han