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Flashcards in APWH FINAL Deck (19):

What was the European opinion of the possibility of World War in 1914?

Many political leaders were convinced that war involved so many political and economic risks that it was not worth fighting. Europeans went to war with remarkable enthusiasm because of government propaganda.


What is the New Economic Policy promoted by Lenin?

was intended to replace policies of war communism. It implemented a tax on farmers which was payable in food. ave farmers incentive to produce more food which could be sold for profit after taxes. "state capitalism"


Describe the Mandate System

Gave legal status for certain territories defeated during WWI. Certain countries administered the territories on behalf of the League of Nations. was supposed to help them "get back on their feet' Mandates said that conquered countries were no loner the "Spoils" of war. Was reorganized after WWII at Yalta. British Mandates were :Transjordan/JOrdan and Israel/Palestine and Mesopotamia
French mandates were : Syria (Turkey/Lebanon)
The Balfour Declaration divided the Ottoman territories between France and Britain


What are the outcomes of World War I?

Treaty of Versailes in 1919. Extremely harsh on Germany which supported the rise of Nazism and the Third Reich (ultimately leading to WWII).
German lost Alsace- lorraine and all its colonies in Africa and Asia.
Germany forced to pay reparations. Hitler able to use defeat to strengthen his party and desire for a master race. Great Depression


What is the Indian National Congress, and how did it lead to the independence of India?

Founded in 1885 by A.O. Hume. Claimed that it had objective of obtaining a greater share of government for educated indians. Created to form a platform for civic and political dialog. Opposition from government led members favor a move toward independence so they could dominate. Split lead to Gandhi helping them


What is the Balfour Declaration?

Promised the establishment of a homeland for Jewish people in Palestine that would not disturb non Jewish groups already there. it was a statement of support by Balfour to Rothschild


How does Japan industrialize in the early 20th century? What does this lead to within the Pacific Theater?

The Meiji Restoration accelerated industrialization which led to a rise in Japan's military power and led them to become consumers of Western technology industrialization allowed Japan to crete a modern Navy
The stronger Navy led to military conflicts such as the Sino-Japanese war. In which Japan defeated China in a war for control of Korea


What is totalitarianism?

a state holds total power/ absolute control of a centralized institution or governing branch and seeks to control public or private life. became popular after the war when Jewish popularity declined and leadership was ineffective. usually led by a dictator using a system of terror to rule. Secret police, violence, and monopolies on power and communication. Hitler (Germany) Mussolini (Italy) and Stalin (Russia)


Describe the "Great Purge" of Joseph Stalin

Political repression. Stalin used secret police and surveillance in order to get rid of government officials, the communist party, red army leadership and peasants "Political criminals" were quickly executed or sent to prisons and labor camps if they spoke out against Stalin. The idea of totalitarian leaders is to keep people in a state of fears


How does Churchill describe tensions between the Soviets and the United States?

"An Iron Curtain" dividing east and west


How was Germany divided after World War II?

Germany was annexed into territories overseen by different forces. Soviets got East Germany and the US and Britain got West Germany as a result of Yalta. The city of Berlin was split in half by the Berlin Wall. One side communist one side free


What is the major impact of the Cuban Missile Crisis on the Cold War?

TheUs didnt like having a communist government so close and considered it a threat to security. Cuba allied with Russia. Both of those countries used this to their advantage against the US. Russia supported Cuba financially and politically. In October 1962 the US was on the brink of Nuclear War. The Soviets had been sending missiles to Cuba. So that they could install a weapons system aimed at the US. The US considered this an immediate threat and took action. Kennedy used a Naval Blockade around Cuba so that the Soviets couldnt continue to send supplies to Cuba. Kennedy and Khroschev the US showed they would not tolerate missiles so close to the United States. Ultimately both sides realized what the outcome of nuclear war would be and struck a deal. The soviets dismantled weapon sites as long as the US agreed not to invade Cuba


Why did Lyndon Johnson increase the troops in Vietnam?

to prevent a total defeat for the anticommunuist government in Saigon


What is Perestroika and Glasnost?

Literally means "restructuring" under Mikhail Gorbachev. Gorbachev restructured the Soviet economy and Soviet bureaucracies. thought to be the reason for the dissolving of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War. Glasnost meaning "Openness" was also a policy of reform by Gorbachev


How does the Great Leap Forward represent change in communist-era China?

Mao's insistent urging party leaders approved a more radical program known as the Great Leap Forward. Existing rural collectives, normally the size of a traditional village, were combined into vast "People's communes," each containing more than 30,000 people. These communes were to be responsible or all administrative and economic tasks at the local level. Socialism and communism. disaster. failure. bad weather, peasant resistance, nothing would get done


What is Genocide?

the systematic and purposeful destruction of a racial, political, religious, or cultural group


Describe the Communist movement in Cuba in the 1950's

Cuban Revolution against Batista led by Fidel Castro. Castro trained insurgents and used guerrilla warfare and Marxist tactics. One Major clash was operation verano in 1958- eventually causing Batista to flee to Spain. Showed that guerrilla warfare could be used to overthrow governments


How were many of the African Independence movements characterized?

Originally under colonial rule
new african political leaders were nationalistic
OAU- Organization of African Unity- represent all African countries
Negritude (African Personality)
Differences between education and income made it hard to form effects of colonialism made it hard for them to succeed.
most independent countries were dependent on a single export- import from the west


How does Nasser's nationalization of the Suez Canal lead to crisis in the Middle East?

Nasser nationalized the Suez Canal which had been under British and French administration. Seeing a threat to their route to the Indian Ocean. the British and the French launched a joint attack on Egypt to protect their investment. They were joined by Israel, whose leaders had grown exasperated at sporadic Arab commando raids on Israeli territory and now decided to strike back