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Introduction to skeletal system/ Muscular system Exam 2 > Appendicular skeleton > Flashcards

Flashcards in Appendicular skeleton Deck (32)
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The Pectoral (shoulder) Girdle is composed of?

Clavicle and scapula


Pectoral Girdle:
_______: (collarbone)- medium-sized flat bone on anterior shoulder
o ______ – articulates w/ the manubrium – _______
-Only joint between axial and appendicular skeleton

Sternal (medial) end
Sternoclavicular joint


______: articulates w/ the manubrium – Sternoclavicular joint
* Only joint between axial and appendicular skeleton

Sternal (medial) end


_______;articulates w/ acromion process of the scapula forming the acromioclavicular (AC) joint

Acrominal (lateral) end


_____; on inferior surface near acromial end. Attaches to conoid ligament that connects with corocoid process of scapula.

Conoid tubercle or Coracoid tuberosity


Pectoral Girdle:
______: (shoulder blade)- large flat bone with triangular body on the posterior of the acromial region (shoulder)



_____:lateral angle contains fossa that articulates with head of humerus to form shoulder

Glenoid Cavity


______: extends from lateral angle to superior angle

Superior border


______: extends from lateral angle to inferior angle

Lateral (axillary) border


_____:extends from superior angle to inferior angle

Medial (vertebral) border


_____; flat projection on superior lateral angle articulates with clavicle

Acromion (acromial process)


_____;projects anterior from lateral angle, serves as origin for short head of biceps brachii, and coracobrachialis, insertion for pectoralis minor

Coracoid process


______:ridge on posterior superior of body extending from acromion to medial border, origin for deltoid muscle, and insertion for trapezius separates the Supraspinous fossa from Infraspinous fossa that are origins of supraspinatus and infraspinatus

Scapular Spine


______: anterior surface and origin of subscapularis muscle

Subscapular Fossa


Appendicular Skeleton : Upper Extremity
_______________: large long bone in brachial region
Following are characteristic:
o _______-articulates with glenoid cavity
o ________- border of capsule for shoulder joint
o ________- epiphyseal line
o _______ tubercle- rough projection on lateral proximal end serves as insertion for supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and teres minor muscles of the rotator cuff
o ________ tubercle- medial to greater serves as the insertion for subscapularis muscle
o ________ sulcus (groove)- space between greater and lesser tubercle serves as insertion for pectoralis major, latissimus dorsi, and teres major
o ________ tuberosity- insertion for deltoid muscle on the lateral diaphysis just proximal to the middle
o _________ fossa- depression on lateral side of anterior surface at the distal epiphysis accommodates the head of the radius during flexion of the elbow
o _________ fossa- depression on medial side of anterior surface at the distal epiphysis accommodates the coronoid process of the ulna during flexion of the elbow
o ________ fossa- depression on posterior surface at the distal epiphysis accommodates the olecranon process of ulna during extension
of the elbow.
o _________- articular surface on medial side of distal
epiphyhsis that articulates with ulna to form the elbow joint
o ________- articular surface on lateral side of distal epiphysis
o ________- ridge superior to trochlea serves as origin for muscles
of the forearm that flex the wrist and fingers like flexor carpi radialis, f. c.
ulnaris, and f. digitorum superficialis
o________- ridge superior to capitulum serves as origin for muscles of the forearm the extend the wrist and fingers like extensor carpi radialis brevis, e. c. ulnaris, and extensor digitorum

Anatomical neck
Surgical neck
Greater tubercle
Lesser tubercle
Intertubercular sulcus (groove)
Deltoid tuberosity
Radial fossa
Coronoid fossa
Olecranon fossa
Medial epicondyle
Lateral epicondyle


Appendicular Skeleton : Upper Extremity
___________-medium sized long bone in medial antebrachial region.
Following are characteristic:
o ______- distal epiphysis
o ______ process- posterior of proximal epiphysis and insertion for triceps
o ________ process - anterior of proximal epiphysis
o__________ notch- articular surface of proximal epiphysis
o _______- smooth indentation on lateral side near the proximal end accommodates the head of the radius
o ________ process- small extension on posterior of distal epiphysis stabilizes the wrist
o ________- rough projection of bone on anterior just inferior to coronoid p. serves as insertion for the brachialis muscle performs flexion of the elbow

Olecranon process
Coronoid process
Trochlear notch
Radial notch
Styloid process
Ulnar tuberosity


Appendicular Skeleton : Upper Extremity
_____________: medium sized long bone in lateral antebrachial region.
o _____- proximal epiphysis
o 21)_______________ tuberosity- rough projection of bone on the
anterior medial surface of the diaphysis just inferior to the radial head
serves as insertion for biceps brachii
o 22)________________ notch- smooth indentation on the medial side
near the distal epiphysis
o ______- small projection of bone extending distal from the
lateral side of the distal epiphysis to stabilize the wrist

******Radial ( Radius)
Styloid process


Appendicular Skeleton : Upper Extremity
_______: Small short bones in the wrist
From lateral to medial
Proximal Row: ______ – Lunate – Triquetrum – Pisiform
Distal Row: Trapezium – Trapezoid – Capitate – _______

*****Carpal Bones


Appendicular Skeleton : Upper Extremity
_________: Small long bones in the palmar region
Number digits 1 to 5 from lateral to medial:
Pollex or Thumb = 1st metacarpal / Little finger = 5th metacarpal



Appendicular Skeleton : Upper Extremity:
______small long bones in digits # same as metacarpals: 1 to 5 from lateral to medial
Each digit has a Proximal – Middle & Distal Phalanx
(except for the Pollex 1st digit had just proximal and distal)



What is the pelvic girdle formed by?

Two halves each called the coxal bones (Os Coxa)


Coxal bone (Os Coxa).

Each Os coxa is formed by the fusion of three separate bones: What are they?



What part of the coxal bone is this?
________: bone that forms the flat superior region of the coxal bone
o ______- ridge on superior end is the origin for the internal abdominal oblique and insertion for external abdominal oblique that perform flexion and rotation of the vertebral column
o _______- smooth anterior surface origin of Iliacus muscle that performs hip flexion
*_______ spine- small pointed process at anterior border of iliac crest and origin of sartorius muscle that laterally rotates and abducts hip
o________spine- origin of rectus femoris of the quadriceps group that extend the knee
o _________ spine- small pointed process at posterior border of iliac crest.
o ______ spine- small pointed process at the superior border of the greater sciatic notch
o ________ notch- large curve on posterior where the largest nerve in the body travels
o ________- articulates with head of femur to form hip joint.

*Iliac crest
*iliac fossa
*Anterior superior iliac spine
*Anterior inferior iliac spine
*Posterior inferior iliac spine
*greater sciatic notch


What part of the coxal bone is this?
_______: bone that forms the inferior posterior region of the coxal bone
o _____- small process at inferior border of greater sciatic notch and superior border of Lesser sciatic notch
o _______ foramen- large opening are origin of obturator muscles that assist with lateral rotation and abduction of hip
o ______- rough projection on posterior inferior is origin for hamstrings muscles that flex the knee (biceps femoris long head, semimembranosus, and semitendinosus)
o _____- projects anterior along the inferior border to articulate with the inferior pubic ramus

*Ischial spine
*obturator foramen
*Ischial tuberosity
*Ischial ramus


What part of the coxal bone is this?
______: bone that forms the inferior anterior region of the coxal bone.
o ______ (only on a complete pelvis)- articulation between medial surfaces of right and left pubis composed of fibrocartilage
o _________ ramus- projects lateral toward acetabulum superior to obturator foramen
o _____ ramus- articulates w/ ischial ramus forming inferior border of obturator foramen
o _______- small rounded projection on anterior is superior border of inferior pubic ramus and medial border of superior pubic ramus
o ______- angle formed below pubic symphysis by L and R inferior pubic ramus. Usually <90° in male and >90° in female

**** Pubis
*Pubic symphysis
*Superior pubic ramus
*Inferior pubic ramus
*Pubic tubercle
*Pubic angle/arch


Appendicular Skeleton : Lower Extremity:
_______: Largest long bone, located the femoral region (thigh)
o ____- articulates with acetabulum
o______- depression on the femoral head that attaches to ligament of the head to help stabilize the hip joint.
o ____- narrow region connecting head diaphysis.
o ____ trochanter-large rough projection on proximal end medial to neck
is insertion for iliacus and psoas muscles that flex the hip
o _______- large rough projection on proximal end lateral to neck, insertion
for gluteus medius and piriformis muscles that abduct the hip
o _________ crest- ridge on posterior connecting greater and
lesser trochanter
o _______- on anterior between greater and lesser trochanter is the distal edge of hip joint capsule
o _________ tuberosity- rough projection on posterior of proximal
diaphysis just inferior to greater trochanter is insertion for gluteus maximus that
extends the hip
o _______- “rough line” elevation on mid line of posterior diaphysis is origin for
biceps femoris short head of quadriceps muscle group that flex the knee and insertion
for adductor magnus.
o ________epicondyle- ridges superior to smooth articular surfaces of medial
and lateral condyles that form the knee joint at the distal epiphysis.
o _______ fossa- deep indentation between medial and lateral condyles.
o ______ surface- smooth anterior side of distal epiphysis

*Lesser trochanter
*Greater trochanter
Intertrochanter crest
Intertrochanteric line
Gluteal tuberosity
Linea aspera
Medial & Lateral epicondyle
Intercondylar fossa
Patellar surface.


Appendicular Skeleton : Lower Extremity:
40)________________: large sesamoid bone imbedded in tendon of quadriceps
femoris (patellar tendon), protects anterior of knee, attaches to the tibial tuberosity
through the patellar ligament and functions as an anatomical pulley in extension of
the knee.



Appendicular Skeleton : Lower Extremity:
_______: Large long bone, located in medial crural region (leg)
o _____ condyle- smooth articular surfaces on proximal
o ______ eminence- ridge between medial and
lateral condyles
o _______- rough projection on anterior of proximal epiphysis
o _________- ridge on surface of diaphysis distal to tibial
o ______ malleolus- “hammer” projects from distal epiphysis on medial side to prevent lateral sliding on the talus

*Medial & Lateral Condyle
*Intercondylar eminence
*Tibial tuberosity
*Anterior crest/margin
*Medial malleolus


Appendicular Skeleton : Lower Extremity:
______: Large long bone, located in lateral crural region
o ___-proximal epiphysis
o _____ malleolus- projects from distal epiphysis to stabilize ankle joint.

*Lateral malleolus


Appendicular Skeleton : Lower Extremity
_________: medium to large short bones in ankle and posterior pedal region
o ____- 2nd largest tarsal articulates with tibia and fibula to form ankle joint
o _______- largest tarsal forms the heel and is the insertion for plantar
flexors of sural region (gastrocnemius and soleus) via Achilles (calcaneal) tendon
o ________- large cube shaped short bone in the lateral pedal region that
articulates with metatarsals 4 & 5.
o ________- medium sized rectangular short bone in the medial pedal
region that articulates with talus and cuneiform bones
o _______- articulates w/ medial side of cuboid and base of 3rd metatarsal
o ______- articulates w/ base of 2nd metatarsal
o ______- articulates w/ base of 1st metatarsal

*Lateral cuneiform
*Intermediate cuneiform
* Medial Cuneiform


_______: small long bones in carpal region #1-5 medial-lateral (Hallux has 1st metatarsal



______: small long bones in pedal digits # same as the metatarsals – 1 to 5
o Proximal – Middle – Distal except for the hallux 1st digit (only proximal & distal)