Osseous Tissue: Introduction to skeletal system Flashcards Preview

Introduction to skeletal system/ Muscular system Exam 2 > Osseous Tissue: Introduction to skeletal system > Flashcards

Flashcards in Osseous Tissue: Introduction to skeletal system Deck (107)
Loading flashcards...
1

The skeletal system is primarily made of......

Bones, cartilage, and dense CT that forms ligaments connecting bones and membranes covering bones (periosteum) and cartilage (perichondrium)

2

What are the 5 functions of the skeletal system?
Mneunomic device:
Se Me Pasa Mirar a Hugo.

Support
Movement
Protection
Mineral storage
Hematopoiesis (Blood cell production)

3

What type of function of the skeletal system is this?
_____ - Framework for soft tissues

Support

4

What type of function of the skeletal system is this?
_____- attachment for skeletal muscles

Movement

5

What type of function of the skeletal system is this?
____- cranium protects brain, ribs, and sternum protect the
lungs and heart

protection

6

What type of function of the skeletal system is this?
____- calcium can be mobilized from the bone to maintain blood {Ca}

Mineral Storage

7

What type of function of the skeletal system is this?
______- red bone marrow contains stem cells that produce that cells of blood

Hematopoiesis ( Blood Cell production)

8

What consists of 80 bones that make up our central axis along the midline?
*Skull (29 bones)
*Vertebrae ( 26 bones)
* Thoracic cage ( 24 Ribs and the 1 sternum)

Axial Skeleton

9

What consists of 126 bones that make up the limbs and girdles that attach the limbs to axial skeleton (pectoral girdle and pelvic girdle)?

Appendicular Skeleton

10

What are the two classifications by location of the skeleton?

Axial skeleton
and Appendicular skeleton

11

What are 5 types of classification by shape?

Long bones
Short bones
Flat Bones
Sesamoid
irregular bones

12

What is the type of classification by shape is this?
_____- have expanded ends called " Epiphysis" & a central shaft called the "Diaphysis"

Long bones

13

What are some examples of long bones found in the appendicular skeleton?

Humerus
radius
Ulna
Metacarpals
phalanges
Femur
Fibula
Tibia
Metatarsal

14

What are some examples of long bones found in the
" Upper Extremity" of the appendicular skeleton?

Humerus
radius
Ulna
Metacarpals
phalanges

15

What are some examples of long bones found in the
" Lower Extremity" of the appendicular skeleton?

Femur
Fibula
Tibia
Metatarsal
phalanges

16

What is the type of classification by shape is this?
_____- Box shaped
*Carpals(wrist bones), Tarsals ( Ankle bones)

Short bones

17

What is the type of classification by shape is this?
_____- Broad surface
* Scapula, Clavicle Frontal, Parietal, Occipital, RIbs, Sternum, Nasal, Lacrimal, Vomer, Coxal

Flat bones

18

What is the type of classification by shape is this?
_____- Bones imbedded within tendons.
* Patella is largest example, most are small bones in palmar and plantar regions.

Sesamoid

19

What is the type of classification by shape is this?
_____- Complex shape not long, short, or flat
* Vertebrae, temporal, incus malleus, stapes, sphenoid, ethmoid, zygomatic, maxillae, mandible, palatine, inferior nasal conchae, hyoid.

Irregular bones

20

What are the matrix of osseous tissue?

Osteoid
Hydroxyapetite

21

What type of matrix of osseous tissue is this?
_____- mostly collagen fibers
*provides flexibility and tensile strenght to resist stretching

Osteoid

22

What type of matrix of osseous tissue is this?
_____-Calcium phosphate hydroxide salts: Ca5(PO4)3 (OH0
* Gives bone its hardness and ability to resist compression

Hydroxyapetite

23

What are the cells of Osseous Tissue?

Osteogenic
Osteoblast
Osteocytes
Osteoclast

24

What type of cells of Osseous Tissue is this?
______- Stem cells that produce osteoblasts

Osteogenic

25

What type of cells of Osseous Tissue is this?
_______- Bone- forming cells, found on inner and outer surfaces

Osteoblast

26

What type of cells of Osseous Tissue is this?
______- Mature bone cells, found in lacunae connected by canaliculi

Osteocytes

27

What type of cells of Osseous Tissue is this?
_______- Bone- destroying cells, break down matrix to release minerals. " type of Luekocyte"

Osteoclast

28

_______: Superficial layer of bone.
Structure: Dense outer layer of a bone, appears smooth and solid, consists of repeating structural and functional units called " Osteon" that consist of concentric lamellae surrounding a " Central Canal" that runs parallel to the axis of a long bone, is lined with endosteum, and contains blood vessels and nerves.
*Lamellae
-Concentric lamellae
-Interstitial lamellae
-Circumferetial lamellae
-Perforating (Volkmann's) canal

Compact ( cortical) Bone

29

Structural of compact bone;
Dense outer layer of a bone, appears smooth and solid, consists of repeating structural and functional units called " ______" that consist of concentric lamellae surrounding a " ______" that runs parallel to the axis of a long bone, is lined with endosteum, and contains blood vessels and nerves

Osteon
Central canal

30

Structural of compact bone;
______ -plates of osseous tissue

Lamellae

31

Structural of compact bone;
_______- surrounds the central canal forming osteons

Concentric lamellae

32

Structural of compact bone;
______- wedged between osteons.

Interstitial lamellae

33

Structural of compact bone;
_____- surrounding the outer and inner edges of compact bone.

Circumferential Lamellae

34

Structural of compact bone;
_______- runs perpendicular to axis of a long bone connecting centra; canals to the periosteum and medullary cavity. Lined with endostuem, contains nerves and bloods vessels.

Perforating (Volkmanns's) canal

35

______ - Deep layer of bone , surrounds medullary cavity in the diaphysis of long bones, fills the epiphysis of long bones.
*Structure: Mesh of small branching plates called "Trabecules" with many open spaces ( trabecular cavities)

Spongy ( Trabecular) Bone

36

Long Bone
______- Expanded end
*Composed mostly of spongy bone
*Contains red marrow

Epiphysis end

37

Long bone
______- Tube shape central shaft. "The body"
*Contains a thick outer layer of compact bone.

Diaphysis

38

long bone
_____ - Disc of hyaline cartilage at the epiphysis-diaphysis junction
*Allows bone to grow in length
*Ossifies at the end of puberty forming compact bone the Epiphyseal line.

Epiphyseal Growth Plate

39

Long Bone
Ossifies at the end of puberty forming compact bone the _________.

Epiphyseal line

40

Long Bone
_______-
* Covering the external surface of the epiphyses
*Structure is similar to hyaline cartilage
* Decreases friction at joint surface.

Articular Cartilage

41

Long Bone
_______- deep within the diaphysis
* Contains: Red bone marrow and yellow bone marrow

Medullary cavity

42

Part of the medullary cavity
_______- For blood cell formation (more in infants than adults)

Red bone marrow

43

Part of the medullary cavity
_____- mostly fat

Yellow bone Marrow

44

What are the two Bone Membranes?

Periosteum and Endosteum

45

______- Outside membrane covering the diaphysis, Richly supplied with blood vessels, contains an outer layer of fibrous CT and an inner cellular layer of osteogenic cells.

Periosteum

46

_____- Membrane lining the medullary cavity, the trabeculae of spongy bone, and canals of compact bone, contains osteogenic cells and osteoclasts.

Endosteum

47

_____- The formation bone of another tissue.

Ossification

48

______-bone develops within a fibrous membrane (eg dermis) Examples- parietal, frontal, part of the occipital, part of the mandible, part of the clavicles, patella

Intramembranous ossification

49

Intramembranous ossification:
1 st step is called ____________:
this is when the ossification center appearss and osteoblasts start to produce the osteoid of bone matrix

Differentiation of osteoblast within mesenchyme

50

Intramembranous ossification:
2nd step is called _________________:
This is when the ossification center appears and osteoblasts start to produce the osteoid of the bone matrix.

formation of blood vessels

51

Intramembranous ossification
3rd step is called ___________:
Spicules merge into trabeculae

entrapment of blood vessels

52

Intramembranous ossification
4th step is called _____________:
Trabeculae merge in to a plate of spongy bone, the surrounding fibrous CT becomes periosteum and a compact bone collar form deep to periosteum.

Naturalization (trabeculae cavities)

53

________- Hyaline cartilage is replaced by bone. EX; all other bones includes all the long bones, short bones, most irregular, some flat bones (ribs, sternum, scapula, coxal).

Endochondrial Ossification

54

Endochondrial Ossification:
1 st step is ________: the osteoprogenitor cells from withing the perichodrium and begin producing osteoblasts cells surrounding the cartilage model.

Formation of periosteum and a bone collar

55

Endochondrial Ossification
2 nd step is ____________:
Chondrocytes deteriorate leaving a cavity and blood vessels grow deep as a periosteal bud that carries in osteoblasts that produce spongy bone within the center of the cartilage model.

Formation of primary ossification center

56

Endochondrial Ossification:
3rd step is ____________ :
Osteoclasts breakdown bone in the center of the primary ossification center producing a cavity and blood vessels carry osteoblasts deep into the ends of the cartilage model producing secondary ossification centers.

Formation of medullary cavity & secondary ossification

57

Endochondrial Ossification:
4th step is _______:
At the birth cartilage remains only at the epiphyseal plates and articular cartilage. " Interstitial growth" proceeds to increase the length of the diaphysis as chondrocytes divide at the epiphyseal growth plate and osteoblast expand the diaphysis. " Apositional Growth proceeds to increase the diameter as osteoclasts expand the medullary cavity and osteoblasts produce compact bone under the periosteum.

Growth

58

_________" proceeds to increase the length of the diaphysis as chondrocytes divide at the epiphyseal growth plate and osteoblast expand the diaphysis.

Interstitial growth

59

_________ proceeds to increase the diameter as osteoclasts expand the medullary cavity and osteoblasts produce compact bone under the periosteum.

Apositional Growth

60

Endochondrial Ossification:
5th step is _________:
At the end of puberty the rate of chondrocyte division slows as osteoblast activity accelerates until the cartilage of the growth plate is entirely ossified producing the epiphyseal line,

Epiphyseal Cloure

61

_______- increase in lenght of a long bone.
1. Chondrocytes on epiphyseal side divide(zone of proliferation)
2. Older chondrocytes closer to the diaphysis calcify and die
3. Osteoclasts breakdown calcidfied matrix
4. Osteoblasts deposit new bone from the diaphysis side (zone of ossification)
- Closure of the epiphyseal plate.

Interstitial growth ( Longitudinal bone growth)

62

Interstitial growth:
1. at maturity chondrocyte division slows and osteoblasts catch up.
2. The epiphyseal plate completely ossifies and becomes the epiphyseal line.

Closure of the epiphyseal plate

63

_________- growth in thickness (width)
1. osteoblasts deposit bone to the outer surface below the periosteum
2.Ostreoclasts remove bone from the inner surface, enlarging the medullary cavity
-Hormonal control of bone growth

Appositonal growth

64

Appositonal growth :
______________:
Growth hormone- secreted by the anterior pituitary gland
*Most important stimulus of epiphyseal plate activity during childhood
-*Hypersecretion=gigantism
-*Hyposecretion+ Pituitary dwarfism

Hormonal control of bone growth

65

_______ secreted by the anterior pituitary gland

Growth hormone-

66

*Most important stimulus of epiphyseal plate activity during childhood
-*_________=gigantism
-*_________=Pituitary dwarfism

Hypersecretion and
Hyposecretion

67

_______- occurs throught one's life involves both new bone formation (osteoblast activity) and bone reabsorption (osteoclast activity)

Bone remodeling

68

Bone ______ occurs for the following reasons:
*Maintain proper proportions
*repair injured bone or increase bone strength
- Mechanical stress: bone adapts to the loads under which it is placed.
*Maintain blood calcium homeostasis.
- Hormonal Control

remodeling

69

_________- bone adapts to the loads under which it is placed.

Mechanical stress

70

_____- parathyroid hormone (PTH) is released from the parathyroid glands when blood calcium is too ____. PTH activities _____ to breakdown bone matrix releasing calcium.

Hormonal control
low
osteoclast

71

_______a disease characterized by a decrease in bone mass that occurs when the rate of bone resorption exceeds the rate of bone formation as the body ages.
* reabsorption (osteoclast actiity) outpaces deposit of bone (osteoblast activity)
*results in porous bones that are light and fragile
*Both men and women are at risk, but incidence is higher in postmenopausal women.

Osteoporosis

72

_____- A fracture in which the skin remains intact

Closed (simple) fracture

73

_____- A fracture in which at least one end of the broken bone tears through the skin: carries a high risk of infection.

Open (compound ) fracture

74

_______- A type of fracture that occurs straight across the long axis of the bone

Transverse fracture

75

_____- A type of fracture rhat occurs at an angle that is not 90 degrees

Oblique fracture

76

______- A type of fracture where bone segments are pulled apart as a result of a twisting motion.
-Twisting an arm and using compression

Spiral fracture

77

_____- A type of fracture where several breaks result in many small pieces between two large segments
- a fall and compression

Comminuted fracture

78

______- A type of fracture where one fragment is driven into the other, usually as a result of compression
- Someone falling

Impacted fracture

79

_______- A partial fracture in which only one side of the bone is broken
- (incomplete fracture)

Greenstick fracture

80

Stages in ______::
Step 1: Formation of fracture hematoma (blood clot)
Step 2:Formation of internal and external calli form.
Step 3. Ossification of external callus
Step 4; Remodeling

fracture repair

81

Stages in fracture repair
________- Plates and clothing factors from blood clots to maintain homeostasis

Step 1: Formation of fracture hematoma

82

Stages in fracture repair:
______- Osteogenic cells of the bone membranes produce osteoblasts that create spongy bone and chondroblasts that create hyaline cartilage stabilizing the fragments.

Step 2:Formation of internal and external calli form.

83

Stages in fracture repair:
_______- Osteoblasts replace cartilage with spongy bone

Step 3. Ossification of cartilage

84

Stages in fracture repair:
_______- Osteoclasts remove damaged bone matrix and osteoblasts produce new bone to restore overall shape and replace spongy bone with compact bone around the superficial edges,
-More dense bone at the end.

Remodeling

85

What are he two types of bone features?

Projections or elevations;

Depression or openings

86

What type of bone feature is this?
Projection or elevations:
______- Bump or projection of the bone (eg. zygomatic process of temporal)

Process

87

What type of bone feature is this?
Projection or elevations:
______-A large rough projection (eg. greater trochanter of femur)

Trochancter

88

What type of bone feature is this?
Projection or elevations:
______-small rounded projection (eg Greater & lesser Tubercle of humerus)

Tubercle

89

What type of bone feature is this?
Projection or elevations:
______- prominent ridge (eg. Iliac crest)

Crest

90

What type of bone feature is this?
Projection or elevations:
______- Sharp, slender or pointed process (eg. Anterior superior iliac spine)

Spine

91

What type of bone feature is this?
Projection or elevations:
______- Prominent rounded articular surface (eg. head of humerus or femur)

Head

92

What type of bone feature is this?
Projection or elevations:
______- Smooth, rounded articular process.

Condyle

93

What type of bone feature is this?
Projection or elevations:
______- Small, flat articular surface (eg. patellar facet of femur)

Facet

94

What type of bone feature is this?
Depression or opening:
______- Shallow depression ( eg. coronoid fossa on anterior surface of humerus)

Fossa

95

What type of bone feature is this?
Depression or opening:
______- groove (eg. intertubercular sulcus on the anterior surface of the humerus)

Sulcus

96

What type of bone feature is this?
Depression or opening:
______-Tube shaped canal or passageway (eg. external acoustic meatus)

Meatus

97

What type of bone feature is this?
Depression or opening:
______- slit like opening, crack (eg. superior orbital fissure)

Fissure

98

What type of bone feature is this?
Depression or opening:
______- rounded opening for nerves/vessels (eg. supraorbital foremen)

Foreman

99

What type of bone feature is this?
Depression or opening:
______- Cavity within a bone (eg. frontal sinus)

Sinus

100

What type of bone feature is this?
Depression or opening:
______- Narrowing of the bone below the head (eg. neck of femur)

Neck

101

What are some words used to for Projections or elevation?

Process
trochanter
crest
spine
head
condyle
facet

102

What are some words used for Depression or openings ?

Fossa
sulcus
Meatus
Fissure
Foremen
Sinus
Neck

103

How many bones are in the axial skeleton?

80 bones

104

What are the three categories that make up the axial skeleton? and how many bones are in each?

Skull (24 bones)
Vertebrae (26 bones)
Thoracic cage (24 and the sternum 1)

105

How many bones are in the appendicular skeleton?

126 bones

106

How many bones in total?

206 bones

107

What bones make up the appendicular skeleton?

limbs and girdles that attach to the axial skeleton