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Introduction to skeletal system/ Muscular system Exam 2 > Axial Skeleton > Flashcards

Flashcards in Axial Skeleton Deck (75)
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1

There are 8 cranial bones.
What are they:
mnuenomic device:
PEST OF 6

Frontal bone
Parietal bone
Occipital bone
Temporal bone
Sphenoid bone
Ethmoid bone

2

what type of cranial bone is this?
________ large flat convex anterior roof of cranium and contains air filled sinuses connected to nasal cavity
Features in the Frontal Bone:
* Squama
Supraorbital foramen
zygomatic process
Supraorbital margin

Frontal bone

3

In the frontal bone
_____- flat region of the bone forming the forehead

squama

4

In the frontal bone
______- upper edge of orbit (eye socket)

Supraorbital margin

5

In the frontal bone
_____ Opening in center of supraorbital margin contains opthalmic branch of trigeminal nerve ( sensory information from superior regions of the face)

Supraorbital foramen

6

In the frontal bone
________ articulates with frontal process of zygomatic bone

Zygomatic process

7

What type of cranial bone is this? ______________________ (2)- large flat convex superior lateral walls of
cranium
Features of the parietal bones;
*Grooves for meningeal vessels-
*Parietal eminence
* Surrounded by 4 major sutures
--Coronal suture
--Squamous suture
--Sagittal suture
--lambdoid suture

Parietal bones

8

On the parietal bones
_____- depressions on the deep surface that
contour to the blood vessels in the membranes surrounding the brain.

Grooves for meningeal vessels-

9

On the parietal bones
_____- central region on exterior with greatest convex
curvature

Parietal eminence

10

On the parietal bone.
Surrounded by 4 major sutures
5)______________________-between frontal and parietal
6)______________________-between temporal and parietal
7)______________________-between left and right parietal
8)______________________-between occipital and parietal

5.Coronal suture
6. squamous sutures
7. Sagittal sutures
8. lambdoid suture

11

What type of cranial bone is this?
______________________- large flat convex posterior wall and base of
cranium
Features of the occipital bone;
*Foramen magnum
*Occipital condyles
*hypoglossal canals
*External occipital crest, protuberance, and nuchal lines
*Fossa for cerebrum
*Fossa for cerebellum
*Jugular notch

Occipital bone

12

On the occipital bone?
_____contains medulla oblongata that attaches to spinal cord

Foramen magnum

13

On the occipital bone?
_____-smooth extensions lateral to foramen magnum that
articulate with the first cervical vertebrae (atlas).

Occipital condyles

14

On the occipital bone?
______-lateral to foramen magnum contains a
cranial nerve that excites muscles of tongue

Hypoglossal canals

15

On the occipital bone?
_____-attachment for
muscles and ligaments that extend and stabilize the neck

External occipital crest, protuberance, and nuchal lines

16

On the occipital bone?
_____-smooth convex deep surface contours to occipital lobe
of cerebrum

Fossa for cerebrum

17

On the occipital bone?
______-smooth convex deep surface contours to cerebellum

Fossa for cerebellum

18

On the occipital bone?
_____-forms the medial side of jugular foramen that is origin of
jugular vein draining blood from the brain

Jugular notch

19

What type of cranial bone is this?
11)______________________ (2)- medium sized irregular shape forms the
inferior lateral wall & floor of cranium has 2 major parts:
*squamous part
*petrous part
Fetures of the temporal bone;
*zygomatic process
*Madibular fossa
*External acoustic (auditory) meatus
*Internal acoustic (auditory) meatus
*Mastiod process
*styloid process
*Stylomastoid foramen
*Carotid foramen ( Canal)

Temporal bone

20

Major Part of temporal bone
_____-is the flat region that forms the
squamous suture.

squamous part

21

Major Part of temporal bone
______-is the inferior part that has a complex
shape and contains middle ear with auditory ossicles (malleus, incus, and
stapes) & inner ear with cochlea, vestibule, & semicircular canals

petrous part

22

Part of temporal bone
____-articulates with temporal process of zygomatic bone

zygomatic process

23

Part of temporal bone
______-articulates w/ condylar p. of mandible to form only mobile skull joint

Madibular fossa

24

Part of temporal bone
______- opening for air in external ear vibrate
the tympanic membrane and ossicles of the middle ear

External acoustic (auditory) meatus

25

Part of temporal bone
______-vestibular cochlear nerve travels from
inner ear

Internal acoustic (auditory) meatus

26

Part of temporal bone
______-insertion for sternocleidomastoid
muscle that flex and rotates neck

Mastiod process

27

Part of temporal bone
______-origin of styloglossus and stylohyoid muscles

styloid process

28

Part of temporal bone
______-located between the styloid and
mastoid processes this opening contains the facial nerve

Stylomastoid foramen

29

Part of temporal bone
_____-contains internal carotid
artery supplying blood to the brain

Carotid foramen ( Canal)

30

What type of cranial bone is this?
______________________-medium sized irregular shape forms anterior floor
of cranium and articulates with all seven of the other cranial bones. Contains air
filled sinuses that connect to nasal cavity.
Features of the sphenoid bone;
*pterygoid processes
*Greater wings:
Foramen spinosum
Foramen ovale
Foramen rotundum
*Lesser wings:
Optic canals
*Superior orbital fissure
Sella turcica

Sphemoid bone

31

In the sphenoid bone.
_____-inferior extensions that provide
attachment for the pterygoid jaw muscles

pterygoid processes

32

In the sphenoid bone.
______- majority of bone extending lateral from the central body and
contains:
Within the greater wing three types of foramen:
§ _______- furthest posterior and lateral opening in greater
wing, small round opening that contains meningeal vessels
§ _____- oval shaped opening on the posterior of the greater
wing contains mandibular branch of trigeminal nerve
§ ______- round opening on the medial to ovale in the greater wing contains maxillary branch of trigeminal nerve

Greater wings
Foramen spinosum
Foramen ovale
Foramen rotundum

33

In the sphenoid bone.
______- broad regions on anterior superior to the greater wings
within the lesser wing there is one foramen;
§ ______- contains optic nerve that carries vision from the eyes

Lesser wings:
Optic canals

34

In the sphenoid bone.
______-large elongated opening between the
lesser wing and greater wing, contains several nerves traveling to/from eyes

Superior orbital fissure

35

In the sphenoid bone.
______-cup shaped depression posterior and medial
to the lesser wings that protects the pituitary gland

sella turcica

36

What type of cranial bone is this?
______-small irregular bone that forms the roof of nasal
cavity. Contains air filled sinuses that connect with nasal cavity.
Feature of the ethmoid bone;
*Crista galli
*Cribriform plate
*perpendicular plate
*Nasal concha
*Cranial Fossa
anterior
Middle
posterior
*Fontanelles
anterior fontanelle
posterior fontanelle
sphenoidal fontanelle
Mastoid fontanelle

Ethmoid bone

37

Part of Ethmoid bone:
______________________- “rooster comb” anterior attachment of falx
cerebri (meninges that stabilize brain).

Crista galli

38

Part of Ethmoid bone:
________-numerous small foramina lateral to the crista gali that contain branches of the olfactory nerve.

Cribriform plate

39

Part of Ethmoid bone:
______-forms superior portion of nasal septum dividing the nasal cavity into left and right

perpendicular plate

40

Part of Ethmoid bone:
_____-superior and middle nasal concha are scroll shaped extensions of the ethmoid that project into the nasal cavity lateral to the perpendicular
plate and produce turbulence that helps warm and humidify incoming air.

Nasal concha

41

Part of Ethmoid bone:
_____-smooth convex surfaces on floor of cranium contour around the brain
• Anterior- formed from the Frontal, Ethmoid, and Sphenoid bones.
• Middle- formed from the Sphenoid, Temporal, and Parietal bones.
• Posterior- formed from the Occipital, Temporal, and Parietal bones

Cranial Fossa

42

Part of Ethmoid bone:
_____-fibrous CT between cranial bones of an infant
• 23__________fontanelle- junction of sagittal and coronal sutures
where left and right halves of frontal bone merge together
• 24)_________fontanelle- junction of lambdoid and sagittal sutures
• 25)________ fontanelle- junction of squamous and coronal sutures
• 26)_______ fontanelle- junction of squamous and lambdoid
sutures

Fontanelles:
Anterior
Posterior
Sphenoidal
Mastoid

43

Facial bones: 14 bones
mnemonic device
Virgil Can Not Make My Pet Zebra Laugh

Vomer (1)
Nasal Concha (2)
Nasal Bones (2)
Maxilla (2)
Mandible (1)
Palatine (2)
Zygomatic bone (2)
Lacrimal (2)

44

Facial bones
____-small flat shape resembles a plow forms the inferior portion of nasal septum

Vomer

45

Facial bones
______-(2)- small irregular bones that form scroll shaped
extension from the inferior lateral walls of nasal cavity to produce turbulence
that helps warm and humidify incoming air.

Nasal concha

46

Facial bones
____-(2)- small flat forming bridge of nose

Nasal bones

47

Facial bones
____- (2)- medium sized irregular shape forms upper jaw and medial margin of orbit. Contains air filled sinuses that connect to nasal cavity
* Infraorbital foramen and inferior orbital fissure- contain a divisions of the
maxillary branch of trigeminal nerve
* Palatal (palatine) process- forms anterior 2/3 of hard palate
* Zygomatic process- articulates with zygomatic bone
*Frontal process- articulates with the frontal bone
o Alveolar process- ridges around upper teeth

Maxilla

48

Facial bone:
_______-medium sized irregular bone forms lower jaw
o B____- major region contains
§ A____- ridge around lower teeth
§ M______- opening on the anterior
surface of the body that contains a division of mandibular branch of
trigeminal nerve.
*R____- process that projects superior from the mandibular angle
*C______- articulates with mandibular
fossa to form only mobile skull joint
*C_____- insertion for temporalis
muscle that closes jaw
*M_____- smooth concave curve at end of ramus between condylar and coronoid processes
*M______- opening on the medial surface of the ramus that contains a division of mandibular branch of
trigeminal nerve carrying sensory information from lower jaw (site for
Novocain injections)

Mandible
Body
Alveolar process
Mental foramen
Ramus
Condylar process
Coronoid process
Mandibular Notch
Mandibular foramen

49

Facial bones
______-(2)- small irregular bones that resemble the letter
L with a horizontal plate that form the posterior 1/3 of hard palate

Palatine bones

50

Facial bone
_____- (2)- medium sized irregular bones that form the
cheeks located lateral to the maxillae and anterior to the temporal and sphenoid
bones.
*______- articulates with zygomatic process of temporal bone
* _______- articulates with zygomatic process of frontal bone

Zygomatic bones

*Temporal process
*Frontal process

51

Facial bone
_____- (2)- the smallest bones of the face have a flat
shape and are located in the medial orbits.
* Lacrimal groove- forms nasolacrimal duct draining tears

Lacrimal bone

52

____- small irregular horseshoe shape located inferior to mandible has no bony joints

Hyoid

53

What bones have Orbital complex:

Frontal bone
Zygomatic bone
Maxilla bone
Palatine bone
Lacrimal bone
Ethmoid bone
Sphenoid bone

54

Orbital complex:
____-forms the roof and supraorbital margin

Frontal bone

55

Orbital complex:
____-forms the lateral wall and lateral floor

Zygomatic bone

56

Orbital complex:
_____-has a frontal process that forms the medial margin and majority of the medial floor

Maxilla bone

57

Orbital complex:
_____-has a superior orbital process forming a small portion of the medial floor

Palatine bone

58

Orbital complex:
_____-forms the portion of the medial wall just lateral to the frontal process of the zygomatic bone

Lacrimal bone

59

Orbital complex:
_____-Forms the portion of the medial wall just medial to the sphenoid bone

Ethmoid bone

60

Orbital complex:
______-forms the majority of the posterior wall containing the
optic canal (foramen) and superior orbital (supraorbital) fissure.

Sphenoid bone

61

_____ (26 bones)- medium to small size and irregular shape, located along
midline from base of skull to the pelvis and forms the vertebral cavity. 7 cervical, 12
thoracic, 5 lumbar, 1 sacrum, 1 coccyx

Vertebral column

62

______- Present at birth are in the thoracic and sacral regions

Primary curves

63

_____-Develop with upright posture, found in cervical and
lumbar regions

Secondary curves

64

Abnormal curvatures:
____- lateral curve;
_____- exaggerated
thoracic curve;
_____- exaggerated lumbar curve (sway back)

Scoliosis
Kyphosis
Lordosis

65

Typical body of a vertebra
The body is the large anterior region and the vertebral arch is the posterior
region surrounding the vertebral canal that contains the spinal cord.
•P_______- lateral walls of the vertebral foramen
• L_____- posterior walls of the vertebral foramen
• S_____- extends posterior from the lamina
• T_____- extend lateral from the pedicles
• Superior and inferior _______- extend from lamina and have facets to
form joints between adjacent vertebrae.

Typical body of a vertebra;
• Pedicles
• Lamina
• Spinouus process-
• Transverse processes-
• Superior and inferior articular processes-

66

____-formed by two adjacent vertebrae located between the
articular processes and bodies where spinal nerves connect to the spinal cord

Intervertebral foramen

67

____- pad preventing contact between adjacent vertebral bodies
• Annulus fibrosus- outer ring of fibrocartilage
• Nucleus pulposus- jelly-like core of loose CT

Intervertebral discs

68

Characteristics of cervical vertebrae (7) (C1-C7)

Transverse foramina in _____ processes
• ____ spinous process (split tip)
• Small body and large _______ foramen
• C1 is also known as ____ : no body, anterior & posterior arch
attach to lateral masses w/ articular facets
• C2 is also known as _____: the odontoid process or dens develops
from what would have been the body of atlas and enables the rotation of atlas
as occurs when you shake from side to side to say no.
• C7 is also known as ____: - generally has the overall appearance
similar to thoracic vertebrae with a long slender spinous process that is not bifid
but C7 does not have costal facets that would be found on thoracic vertebrae.

Transverse
Bifid
Vertebral
Atlas
Axis
Vertebra Prominens

69

Characteristics of thoracic vetebrae (12) ( T1- T12)
____on the body and transverse processes articulate with
the ribs.
______ spinous process points inferior

Costal facets
• Long slender

70

Characteristics of lumbar vertebrae (5) ( L1-L5)
____shaped body and small vertebral foramen
____ square shaped spinous process

Large oval
• Blunt

71

_____- large irregular bone that forms the posterior wall of the
pelvic cavity and formed from the fusion of 5 vertebrae.
• ___- wide superior end articulates with L5
-Sacral Promontory- anterior rim of base.
• ___- narrow inferior end articulates with coccyx
• ____- contains spinal nerves that extend down from the spinal cord through the
vertebral foramen and exit through the 4 pairs of sacral foramina

Sacrum
Base
-Sacral Promontory
Apex
Canal

72

in Sacrum
______crest- ridge on the posterior down midline
resulting from fused spinous processes
58)___________ “tail” bone made of 3-5 small vertebrae that fuse together late
in life.

Median sacral crest
coccyx

73

______-Large flat bone along midline on anterior thorax
• ____--broad superior part
o ____(suprasternal) notch- curved superior edge on midline between
clavicles
• ____- large middle portion
• _____- “sword-like” small inferior pointed tip that is originally
made of cartilage but gradually ossifies during adult life.

Sternum
Manubrim
Jugular
Body
Xiphoid process

74

_____- medium sized flat bones extending lateral and anterior
from the thoracic vertebrae, the superior ten curve medial at the anterior of the thorax
to form cartilaginous articulations with the sternum (costal cartilage).
• Numbered in pairs starting from superior 1-12
• _____- numbered 1-7 attach to sternum directly through
distinct costal cartilages.
• ____ 8-10 attach to the costal cartilage of rib 7.
• _____ 11 & 12 have no costal cartilage

Ribs
True Ribs
Flase Ribs
Floating Ribs

75

Features of ribs
_____-articulates with the costal facets of vertebral body
o ____- articulates with the costal facets on the transverse processes of thoracic vertebrae
o ____- region between head and tubercle
o ____- point of greatest curvature
o ___-- long narrow depression on the inferior surface that contains costal nerves and blood vessels

Head-
o Tubercle
o Neck-
o Angle-
o Costal groove