Applied and Environmental Microbiology Flashcards Preview

Microbiology Exam One > Applied and Environmental Microbiology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Applied and Environmental Microbiology Deck (53):
1

What is fermentation?

Any desirable change that occurs to a food or beverage as a result of microbial growth

2

What are composed of known microorganisms that consistently perform specific fermentations that is used in commercial food and beverage production?

Starter cultures

3

What are adverse changes to a food due to the action of microorganisms?

Spoilage

4

How are cheeses made?

The acid produced by the bacteria during fermentation curdles the milk

5

What is the major bacteria of Wisconsin involved in cheese fermenting?

Lactococcus lactis

6

What are the two categories of food poisoning?

Food infections, food intoxications

7

Which category of food poisoning entails the consumption of living microorganisms?

Food infections

8

Which category of food poisoning entails the consumption of microbial toxins rather than the microbe?

Food intoxications

9

What is the rate of food borne illness in the US?

1/6 Americans per year

10

What are the primary location and secondary location of where most food borne illness comes from?

1-food service industry, 2-unknown origin

11

What is the #1 culprit of food borne illness?

Norovirus

12

What is the second most common cause of food borne illness in the US?

Salmonella spp.

13

Which two bacterial agents of food borne illness grow at refrigerator temperature?

Listeria monocytogenes, yersinia enterocolitica

14

What is physical water pollution?

Presence of particulate matter

15

What is chemical water pollution?

Presence of inorganic or organic compounds

16

What is biological water pollution?

Too many or non-native microorganisms

17

Why are waterborne diseases rare in the US?

Water treatment removes most waterborne pathogens

18

What condition does norovirus cause?

Gastroenteritis

19

What are the stages for the treatment of drinking water?

1 coagulation and flocculation
2 sedimentation
3 filtration
4 disinfection

20

What is the term for water that is considered safe enough to drink?

Potable water

21

Is potable water completely devoid of microorganism and chemicals?

No; the levels are low enough that it is not a health concern

22

The presence of what substance indicates fecal contamination of food or water?

Coliforms

23

If coliforms are present, what can that imply?

Increased likelihood that there are disease-causing microbes present

24

What is the indicator of sanitary (or unsanitary) quality of food and water?

Presence of coliforms

25

What is the water treated with in stage one of the cleansing process?

Alum - chemical that enables particles in the water to clump together

26

What is the term for the clumps of heavy material that is grouped by alum in the first stage of the filtering process of drinking water?

Flocs

27

What occurs in the second step of the filtration of drinking water?

Sedimentation - letting the water sit enables the heavy materials to fall to the bottom

28

What are the three possibilities for filtration during the third step of the cleansing process of drinking water?

Sand filtration, activated charcoal, membrane filtration

29

What is the purpose of the filtration step of cleansing our water?

Removal of microbes

30

Which step of the cleansing process of drinking water involves the deactivation of remaining molecules?

Last step (disinfection)

31

What are the three things used in the disinfection step of cleansing our drinking water?

Chlorine, ozone, and UV light

32

What is the primary treatment of waste water?

Sedimentation

33

What is formed from the first step of the cleansing of waste water?

Sludge

34

What occurs in the secondary treatment of waste water to the "water"?

Aerated with oxygen to kill bacteria

35

What is used to disinfect the water during cleansing of waste water during the chemical treatment?

Chlorine

36

What happens during sludge treatment in the final step of waste water cleansing?

Anaerobic digestion of sludge followed by the methane being trapped and used for fuel

37

What is the water called that LEAVES your house?

Waste water/sewage

38

What is the water called that COMES to your house?

Municipal water

39

What does remediate mean?

To solve a problem

40

What is bioremediation?

To use biological organisms to solve an environmental problem such as contaminated soil or groundwater

41

What is bioterrorism?

The use of microbes and/or their toxins to threat or harm the human population

42

What is agroterrorism?

The use of microbes to terrorize the human population by destroying food supply

43

When dealing with criteria for assessment of biological threats, what is public health impact?

The ability of hospitals and clinics to handle the casualties

44

When dealing with criteria for assessment of biological threats, what is delivery potential?

How easily an agent can be introduced into the population

45

When dealing with criteria for assessment of biological threats, what is public perception?

The effect of public fear on ability to control an outbreak

46

When dealing with criteria for assessment of biological threats, what is public health preparedness?

Existing response measures

47

What are the diseases in order of greatest concern for being bioterrorist threats?

Smallpox, anthrax, plague, botulism, tularemia, viral hemorrhagic fevers

48

Which bio safety level has pathogens that do not cause disease in healthy humans?

Level 1

49

Which bio safety level deals with the handling of moderately hazardous agents?

Level 2

50

Which bio safety level involves the handling of microbes in safety cabinets that may cause serious or potentially lethal disease after inhalation?

Level 3

51

Which bio safety level involves the handling of microbes that cause severe or fatal diseases?

Level 4

52

What laboratory technique could be used by terrorists to create their own microbes or modify already known biological threats?

Recombination of DNA

53

What are some positive things that could come from DNA are combination of microbes?

Vaccines, treatments, and pathogen-resistant crops