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Microbiology Exam One > Cell Structure And Function > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cell Structure And Function Deck (47):
0

What are the four processes of life?

Growth, reproduction, responsiveness, metabolism

1

What is the single most important differentiating factor between prokaryotes and eukaryotes?

Prokaryotes do not have nuclei, and eukaryotes do.

2

Do prokaryotes possess internal membrane bound organelles?

No

3

What is the shape of prokaryotic DNA?

Circular

4

What subgroups are made of up prokaryotes?

Archaea and bacteria

5

Do eukaryotes have a nucleus?

Yes

6

What is the shape of eukaryotic DNA?

Linear

7

Algae, protozoa, fungi, animals, and plants are made up of what type of cells?

Eukaryotes

8

What type of glycocalyx is firmly attached to the cell surface?

Capsule

9

What type of glycocalyx is loosely attached to the cell surface?

Slime layer

10

What is the gelatinous, sticky substance surrounding the outside of the cell?

Glycocalyces

11

What are the three parts of flagella on bacteria?

Filament, hook, and basal body

12

Are flagella present on all bacteria?

No, but most

13

What is the function of bacterial flagella?

Allow movement

14

What is the term for when the flagella function together for movement?

"Runs"

15

What is the term for the movement created by a single flagella of bacteria moving either clockwise or counterclockwise?

"Tumbles"

16

What structures mediate the transfer of DNA between bacterial cells (conjugation)?

Pili

17

What is the composition of the bacterial cell wall?

Peptidoglycan

18

What are the functions of the bacterial cell wall?

Provide structure and shape, gives characteristic shape, protect cell from osmotic forces

19

What are the two most common types of bacterial cell walls?

Gram + or gram -

20

Which type of bacterial cell wall has a relatively thick layer of peptidoglycan?

Gram +

21

Which type of bacterial cell wall contains unique polyalcohols called teichoic acids?

Gram +

22

Gram + bacterial cell walls appear as what color following a gram staining procedure?

Purple

23

Which type of bacterial cell well has a thin peptidoglycan layer?

Gram -

24

Lipid A is only found in what type of bacterial cell wall?

Gram -

25

What is lipid A as found in gram - bacterial cell walls?

A potent endotoxin released from dead cells that may trigger fever, vasodilation, inflammation, shock, and blood clotting

26

What type of bacterial cell wall appears a red or magenta after a gram staining procedure?

Gram -

27

Diffusion, facilitated diffusion, and osmosis are all forms of what type of process?

Passive processes

28

Active transport and group translocation are examples of which type of process?

Active processes (requiring ATP)

29

What is group translocation?

Substance chemically modified during transport

30

What part of bacteria stores abundant nutrients by acting as reservoirs?

Inclusions

31

What are unique structures produced by some bacteria that are a defensive strategy against unfavorable conditions?

Endospores

32

Endospores are only created by bacteria from which genus?

Bacillus and clostridium

33

What is the most resistant type of bacteria?

Those with endospores (bacillus and clostridium)

34

Which organelle is the structure for protein synthesis?

Ribosomes

35

What is the total size of prokaryotic ribosomes?

70S

36

What are the individual sizes of each subunit of prokaryotic ribosomes?

30S and 50S

37

What cells lack cell walls?

Animal and MOST protozoan cells

38

What cells HAVE cell walls?

Fungi, algae, plants, and SOME protozoans

39

What form of active processes is present among eukaryotic cytoplasmic membranes?

Endocytosis

40

What is endocytosis?

Physical manipulation of the membrane to form pseudopodia for engulfing

41

What is the term for the engulfment of solid material by the cell membrane?

Phagocytosis

42

What is the term for the importation of liquid into the cell through the membrane?

Pinocytosis

43

In which type of cell are ribosomes larger?

Eukaryotic ribosomes

44

What is the overall size of eukaryotic ribosomes?

80S

45

What are the individual sizes of the eukaryotic ribosome subunits?

60S and 40S

46

EXCEPTION: what is the overall size of ribosomes in mitochondria and chloroplasts?

70S