Microbial Genetics Flashcards Preview

Microbiology Exam One > Microbial Genetics > Flashcards

Flashcards in Microbial Genetics Deck (24):
0

What are plasmids?

Small molecules of extra chromosomal DNA that replicate independently

1

Can bacteria survive without plasmids?

Yes; they are not essential for normal metabolism, growth or reproduction

2

What is the function of plasmids?

They can confer survival advantages

3

What is the function of fertility factors as plasmids?

Carry instructions for conjugation

4

What is the function of resistance factors as plasmids?

Carry genes for resistance to antibiotics

5

What is the function of bacteriocin factors as plasmids?

Carry genes to make toxins to kill off its competitors

6

What is the function of virulence plasmids?

Carry instructions that enable bacterium to become pathogenic

7

What type of gene transfer is when organisms replicate their genome and provide copies to descendants?

Vertical gene transfer

8

Which type of gene transfer is normal in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes?

Vertical gene transfer

9

Which type of gene transfer only occurs among prokaryotes?

Horizontal gene transfer

10

Which type of gene transfer involves a donor cell that contributes part of a genome to the recipient cell and can be of a different species?

Horizontal gene transfer

11

What are the three types of horizontal gene transfer?

Transformation, transduction, bacterial conjugation

12

Which type of horizontal gene transfer occurs when a recipient cell takes up DNA from the environment?

Transformation

13

What is the term used to describe the special cells that are able to engage in transformation as a form of horizontal gene transfer?

Competent (only a few bacteria can do this)

14

Competent cells engaging in transformation as a form of horizontal gene transfer take DNA from what kinds of organisms?

Both live and dead

15

Which type of horizontal gene transfer involves the transfer of DNA from one cell to another via a replicating virus?

Transduction

16

What type of transduction gene transfer involves the phage carrying random DNA from donor to recipient?

Generalized transduction

17

Which type of transduction gene transfer involves only certain DNA being transferred from donor to recipient?

Specialized transduction

18

What is a bacteriophage?

A virus that attacks bacteria

19

What is the term used to describe donor DNA being incorporated into the recipient's chromosome during transduction?

Recombination

20

Which type of horizontal gene transfer involves the transfer of DNA from one cell to another, mediated by conjugation pili?

Conjugation

21

During conjugation (horizontal gene transfer), what requirement is there for the donor cell?

F plasmid (F+)

22

In conjugation (horizontal gene transfer), what is the cell called that lacks the F plasmid?

F- cell (the recipient cell)

23

What type of disease is the salt water infection, vibrio vulnificus?

Emerging disease