April 4 Flashcards Preview

Designated study period: daily cards > April 4 > Flashcards

Flashcards in April 4 Deck (43):
1

Aortic dissection presentation

Classic presenting symptom is tearing chest pain radiating to back and widened mediastinum on chest pain. There can be BP differential between arms and BP can be high or low.

If involves aortic root, can see aortic regurg or pericardial effusion/tamponade.

If involves aortic arch, can see stroke, Horner syndrome, vocal cord paralysis due to compression of recurrent laryngeal nerve, which runs under the aorta

2

Ibutilide

Class III antiarrhythmic

3

Actinic keratosis gross pathology

Scaly plaque

4

SCC gross pathology and risk factors

Gross: Ulcerated, nodular mass, classically involving lower lip

Risk factors: immunosuppression, arsenic poisoning, chronic inflammation

5

BCC gross and micro

Gross: elevated nodule with central ulcerated crater. Surrounded by dilated vessesl (telangiectasias). Classically on upper lip.

Micro: Nodules of basal cells with peripheral palisading

6

Seborrheic keratosis micro

Circular spaces with abundant pink keratin, proliferation of keratinocytes

7

Herniation: which nerve root

Posterolateral disc herniation most common: affects nerve root below (L4-L5 herniation affects L5 nerve root)

Foraminal herniation affects nerve root above (L4-L5 herniation affects L4 nerve root)

8

Precontemplation vs contemplation

Precontemplation: not yet acknowledging that there is a problem behavior
Contemplation: acknowledging a problem but not yet ready to make a change

9

Theophylline

Phosphodiesterase inhibitor that increases cAMP leading to bronchodilation to treat asthma.

Narrow therapeutic index drug thtat is cardiotoxic and neurotoxic. OD treated with cardioselective beta blocker

10

Ipratropium

Competitive muscarinic antagonist. Prevents bronchoconstriction in asthma and COPD.

11

Montelukast

Blocks leukotriene receptors. Good for aspirin-induced asthma

12

Zafirlukast

Blocks leukotriene receptors. Good for aspirin-induced asthma

13

Zileuton

Blocks 5-lipoxygenase, preventing formation of leukotrienes. Used for asthma

14

Digitalis/anti-arrhythmic interaction

Quinidine blocks digitalis clearance and displaces digitalis from binding sites

15

Anti-psuedomonal cephalosporin

Ceftazidime

16

Isoproterenol

Agonist at beta1 and beta2 receptors

17

Dobutamine

Beta1 agonist

18

Norepinephrine

Dominantly alpha agonist

19

Phenylephrine

Alpha agonist

20

Pseudoephedrine

Alpha agonist

21

Terbutaline

beta agonist used in obstetrics to decrease contractions

22

Ritodrine

beta agonist used in obstetrics to decrease contractions

23

Clonidine

Alpha2 agonist, decreases sympathetic tone

24

Methyldopa

Alpha2 agonist, decreases sympathetic tone

25

Amphetamine

Blocks reuptake and promotes release of norepi

26

Ephedrine

Promotes release of NE

27

Treatment of cocaine intoxication

Benzos, no beta blockers

28

Phentolamine

Blocks alpha1 and alpha2 receptors. USed for MAOi tyramine reaction

29

Musc agonist effect on BP

Indirect effect: activate guanylate cyclase, decreasing Ca++ leading to vasodilation

30

Bethanechol

Muscarinic agonist.

31

Methacholine

M agonist, used to cause bronchoconstriction and test for asthma

32

Pilocarpine

M agonist, used to decrease IOP

33

Carbachol

M agonist, used to decrease IOP

34

Myasthenia gravis exacerbation

Two causes
1) insufficient AChE dose
2) cholinergic crisis: too much AChE making NMJ refractory

Give edrophonium to distinguish

35

M receptor effect on sweating

Agonists increase sweating
Antagonists decrease sweating, increasing temp leading to reflexive flushing of skin

36

Pralidoxime

Regenerates AChEI

37

Benztropine

Anti-M for PD

38

Scopolamine

Anti-M for motion sickness

39

Oxybutynin

Anti-M for overacitive bladder

40

TRAP

Marker of B cell neoplasms

41

Cluster hedache

Severe headache, lacrimation, conjunctival injection, ptosis, congestion, abortive O2 therapy

42

I cell disease

Defective phosphotransferase - can't phosphorylate mannose so golgi doesn't recognize mannose-6-phosphate on hydrolase enzyme and traffic it to lysosome and it instead gets secretd. Without hydrolase, lysosomes fill up with stuff that can't be degraded

Presents iwth dev delay, club foot, joint contractures, hernias, coarse facial features, gingival hypertrophy, hoarse voice

43

Diffuse vs perfusion limited gases

CO: diffusion limited
NO: perfusion limited
O2: normally perfusion limited; becomes diffusion limited during excercise