March 19 - NBME Flashcards Preview

Designated study period: daily cards > March 19 - NBME > Flashcards

Flashcards in March 19 - NBME Deck (30):
1

Transformation vs conjugation

Transformation: uptake of naked DNA
Conjugation: transfer of genetic material between bacterial cells by direct cell-cell contact

2

Bullous pemphigoid

blisters between epidermis and dermis due to anti-hemidesmosome antibodies. Urticarial lesions develop into tense bullae

3

Pemphigus vulgaris

Anti-desmosome antibodies againstdesmoglein 1 and 3 cause flaccid bullae

4

Anti-proteinase 3 antibodies

Another name for c-anca

5

Trigeminal nerve: sensory distribution and foramina

V1: superior orbital fissure; scalp, forehead, upper eyelid, conjunctiva, cornea, and nose

V2: foramen rotundum; lower eyelid, cheek, nares, upper lips, teeth, and gums, nasal mucosa, palate

V3: foramen ovale; lower jaw and chin, tongue

6

Albinism: genetic defect

Autosomal recessive defect in tyrosinase which is required to produce melanin

7

Pancreatic cancer risk factors

smoking, age, african american, male, chronic pancreatitis, long standing type 2 diabetes, obesity

8

Definition of precocious puberty

Less than 8 in girls, less than 9 in boys

9

5' cap functions (4)

1. Regulation of nuclear export via cap binding complex
2. Prevention of degradation by exonucleases
3. Promotion of translation
4. Promotion of 5' proximal intron excision

10

G proteins

GTPases. On when GTP-bound, off when GDP-bound.

11

Neomycin

topical aminoglycoside antibiotic

12

Heteroplasy

Describes having more than one type of organellar genome within a cell or individual. Determines severity of mitochondrial genetic disease

13

Erection spinal reflex

Sensory through pudendal nerve
Parasympathetic outflow to penile BVs
Can be preserved in spinal cord injury if sacral spinal cord in tact (e.g. thoracic injury)

14

Pulmonary shunt

Normal perfusion but decreased ventilation (V/Q=0)
Seen in pulmonary edema and lung consolidation - mechanism of hypoxemia

15

Dextromethorphan MOA

In OTC cold and cough medications. NMDA antagonist and alpha agonist

16

Guiafenesin

Expectorant

17

Loratidine

2nd gen H1 antagonist

18

Collageneous colitis

Also called microscopic colitits. IBD affecting women in their 50s. Presents with watery diarrhea. Mucus looks normal on colonoscopy but shows collagen deposition in lamina propria on biopsy

19

Congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation

Lobe of lung replaced with cystic, non-functional tissue

20

Papillary muscle rupture

Papillary muscles attach to cusps of AV valves via chordae tendinae. Complicaitn of MI. Leads to acute migral regurg, pulmonary edema, and cardiogenic shock

21

Stages of change

1. Precontemplation: not yet thinking about it
2. Contemplation: thinking about it, made it a goal, but not doing anything yet
3. Preparation: made it a goal, taken some steps and planning to do it soon
4. Action: making the change
5. Maintenance: sticking with it for at least 6 months
6. Relapse: stopped doing the new behavior

22

Definitions of validity and bias

Validity: how well test or study answers question it was supposed to answer

Bias: nonrandom deviation from the truth that can't be corrected by sample size

23

Corora amylacea

Small hyaline masses in the prostate, neuroglia, pulmonary alveoli of no known significance

24

Testicular torsion

Emergency: can lose the testicle. Rotation of the testicle resulting in strangulation of the blood supply. Seen in teens. PResents with severe pain, N/V, swelling of the scrotum

PE: loss of cremasteric reflex, pain not relieved by elevating the testis

Diag: clinical, color dopplar US

Treatment: surgery

25

Distinguishing testicular torsino and epididymitis

Torsion: pain not relieved by elevating the testis

Epididymitis: pain is relieved by elevating testis

26

Fanconi syndrome

Disease of proximal tubules in which glucose, amino acids, uric acids, phosphate, and bicarb cannot be reabsorbed and are passed into the urine. Loss of bicarb results in renal tubular acidosis. Loss of phosphate results in rickets. Polyuria and polydipsia, growth failure, electrolyte abnormalities

27

Risperidone

antipsychotic

28

Donepezil

Centrally aciting acetylcholinesterase inhibitor used to treat Alzheimer's disease

29

Recurrent malaria

Due to persistence of hypnozoites in liver cells. Seen iwth vivax and ovale

30

Dysthymic disorder

Persistent low mood at least two years + two other depression symptoms