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Flashcards in Aquaculture (Floyd) Deck (34):
1

Aquaculture

  • controlled rearing of aquatic organisms
  • fastest growing animal industry in global market
  • direct competition with wild harvests

2

Issues for veterinarians

  • disease dx/ control
  • 'legal' drugs
  • health certification
  • food safety
  • reportable diseases
    • OIE: a bunch for aquatic diseases

3

Global aquaculture commodities

  • 32% global consumption from aquaculture
    • China: 89% global production
    • Asia (excluding China): 22%
    • Latin America: 2.2%
    • N.A.: 1%

*numbers don't add up, know most is from China

4

Florida Aquaculture

TQ

  • Tropical Fish: $ 33 million
  • Aquatic Plants: $ 17 million
  • Clams: $ 11 million
  • Alligators: $ 4 million
  • Catfish: $ 1.4 million
  • Other food fish: $ 1.7 million

5

Extensive farming

  • they are free
  • fisherie as opposed to a farm
    • low stocking rate
    • low feeding rate
    • less time consuming
    • less expense

6

Intensive farming

  • management is more like a traditional farm
    • crowding
    • water quality issues
    • nutrition
    • infectious disease
    • water quality management/aeration required

7

advantages of extensive production

  • little investiment
  • fish can be trapped
  • natural food available
  • used as source of protein from community managed ponds
  • talapia
  • multi-tiered
    • ​pigs/chickens housed over pond => algae blood => feeds fish

8

example of extensive production

livebearer production in Florida

  • produce live young, no eggs
    • guppies, swordtails, mollies, platies
  • Traditional production
    • stock broodfish into fertilized pond
    • low quality (cost) feed in small amounts
    • place baited traps
      • harvest fish of sufficient size that go into trap
    • no control of genetics or number harvested

9

Intensive production

advantages

  • indoors-more control
  • elimination of predation
  • massive inc in production
    • only option for modern commercial operation

10

Intensive production

Disadvantages

  • inc risk of disease and disease transmission
    • biosecurity is critical
  • system failure can lead to catastrophic loss
    • possibly minutes
  • high start-up and operating costs
  • complete diet required

11

Example of Intensive production

egg layer

  • initial rearing in hatcheries
    • species dependent methods
  • grow out in ponds or tanks
    • ponds: aeration and quality feeds
    • inc use of re-circulating systems
    • biosecurity is critical

12

Example of intensive fish farming in FL

  • angelfish
  • slate to hatching jar to pond to vat

13

Types of production systems in US

  • Earthen ponds
    • channel catfish
    • hybrid striped bass
    • shrimp
  • Raceways
    • Rainbow trout
  • Cages or net pens
    • Salmon
  • Re-circulating tank systems
    • Tilapia
  • Underwater lease
    • clams from cedar key!

14

Pond production

Advantages

  • free or cheap water
    • no need to pump/circulate
  • filtration system not required
  • some natural food available

15

Pond production

Disadvantages

  • minimal control of environment
    • very imp in large production ponds
  • predation can exceed 70%
  • difficult to maintain inventory
  • 'off flavor' hard to control
    • algal blooms
    • fish can't be marketed for consumption
    • quality control issue, not food safety

16

Earthen ponds

  • intensity of management determined by stocking rates
  • dissolved oxygen often limiting
  • minimal control of rearing conditions
  • most common method used for production aquaculture in U.S.

17

Raceway production systems

advantages

  • often free water from river, other
  • use high flows instead of filtration systems
  • inexpensive

18

Raceway production systems

disadvantages

  • poor control water source
  • introduce disease and contamination if using surface water
  • concerns with effluent
    • contamination
    • dissemination of dz to surface waters
  • crowding facilitates rapid spread of disease
  • treatments can be difficult b/c of large volumes of water used

19

Cage culture

Advantages

  • tidal flush - free water exchange
  • risk of contamination or disease intro
  • easy to harvest

20

Cage culture

disadvantages

  • controversial in population areas (Puget sound)
    • aesthetic concerns
    • environmental concerns
  • exposure to wild fish - dz potential
  • potential for local contamination
  • susceptible to storm damage
  • predation
  • concenr for local environment
  • very crowded
    • potential for dz spread
  • difficult to treat

21

Recirculating systems

advantages

  • complete control of environment
  • no predation
  • very efficient grow out for suitable species
    • diet
    • toleration
  • Treatment easier and less expensive

22

Re-circulating systems

disadvantages

  • very high capital investment
  • high risk
    • power failure - catastrophic loss
  • intensive management requirements
  • expensiive to operate and maintain
    • protect life support systems
  • biosecurity is critical

23

Production strategy

All-in-all-out

 

  • system drained at end of production cycle
    • all fish removed
  • disinfection and removal of sediment and muck
  • In florida may get 2-3 crops per pond per year
    • ornamental species

24

Production strategies

Continuous

  • System rarely drained
    • once in 10-15 years
  • following harvet - top off with aprox number fingerlings to replace
  • Industry standard for catfish

25

Continuous harvets

advantages

  • no down time to dry out pond
  • replace # harvested animals with equal # fingerlings
  • practical for very large ponds

26

Continuous harvest

disadvantage

  • lose track of inventory
  • pond banks erode
  • massive accumulation organic matter
  • maintenance is major
  • major dz control can be difficult

27

All in all out harvest

advantages

  • Better control of inventory
  • avoid build up of organic material
  • can produce multiple crops in same pond
  • better for biosecurity

28

All in all out harvest

disadvantage

  • labor intensive
  • more effluent from pond

29

Channel Catfish

  • most imp aquaculture industry in US
  • ranked 10th globally
  • production centered in mississippi valley
  • market size 1-1.5 lbs takes 18 months

30

Tilapia

  • real chicken of the sea
  • hardy
    • tiered system with pigs or chickens
  • single sex populations
  • thermolimited 50 degrees

31

Carp (Koi)

  • Carp: # 1 aquatic food animal in China
    • nuisance in US waters - invasive
  • Koi: specially bred for color
    • excellent candidate for vet care

32

European style Koi shows

  • good kind
  • tubs next to each other

33

Japanese style koi show

  • Bad kind (biohazard)
  • fish placed in same tub for judging
    • disease risk

34

Carp Koi diseases

  • spring viremia of carp - foreign animal dz (big deal)
    • cool water dz (50 deg)
    • depopulation required
  • koi herpes - endemic but reportable
    • warm water dz
    • gill disease