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Flashcards in Arrythmias Deck (41)
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1

sinus bradycardia

<60 bpm

2

causes of sinus bradycardia

physiological
- normal during sleep/ highly trained athletes

beta blockers
hypothyroidism
ischaemia
'sick sinus' syndrome in the elderly - degenerative fibrosis

3

acute treatment of sinus bradycardia

atropine

4

contraindications of atropine

myasthenia gravis
paralytic ileum
(temporary pacing instead)

5

sinus tachycardia

>100 bpm

6

causes of sinus tachycardia

drugs
anxiety
anaemia
fever

7

acute treatment of sinus tachycardia

beta blocker

8

narrow complex tachycardia

SVT

9

causes of SVT

AV node re-entrant tachycardia (most common)
AV reciprocating - presence of accessory pathway

10

accessory pathway in Wolff Parkinson white

bundle of Kent

11

1st line SVT in stable patient

vagal manœuvres
- valsalva (children + elderly)
- carotid massage (adults)

12

2nd line SVT tx

IV adenosine

13

3rd line SVT tx

verapamil

14

broad complex tachycardia

ventricular tachycardia

15

causes of ventricular tachycardia

underlying heart disease
- coronary heart disease
- previous MI
- cardiomyopathy

16

Tx of ventricular tachycardia if stable

amiodarone

17

Tx if unstable

DC cardioversion

18

Tx of ventricular fibrillation

DC cardioversion

19

causes of torsades de pointes

hypokalaemia
hypocalcaemia

20

Tx of torsades de pointes

magnesium sulphate

21

first degree heart block

regular lengthening of PR interval (>22s)

22

mobitz type 1 second degree heart block

gradual lengthening of PR interval then dropped QRS

23

mobitz type 2 second degree heart block

fixed length of PR interval and irregular QRS complexes dropped

24

third degree heart block

complete dissociation between atrial and ventricular activity

25

tx of mobitz type 1

pacing if symptomatic

26

tx of mobitz type 2

permanent pacing

27

tx of third degree heart block

ventricular pacing

28

atrial fibrillation

irregularly irregular
no P waves

29

paroxysmal AF

lasts less than 48 hours

30

persistant AF

lasts >48 hours but can be treated with drugs to restore normal HR