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Flashcards in Biochemistry Deck (50)
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1

what controls sodium

mineralocorticoid activity

2

what controls water

ADH

3

how does mineralocorticoid control sodium

sodium retention in exchange for potassium and/or hydrogen ions

4

what happens if there is too much mineralocorticoid activity

sodium retention

5

what happens if there is too little mineralocorticoid activity

sodium loss

6

rule with sodium + water

water follows sodium

7

what happens to water if there is sodium loss

water is lost

8

main mineralocorticoid that influences sodium

aldosterone

9

what is released from the kidney when BP is low

renin

10

what cells release renin

juxtaglomerular cells

11

what cells sense sodium concentration

macula densa

12

what does renin act on

angiotensinogen

13

where is angiotensinogen released from

liver

14

what converts angiotensinogen to angiotensin 1

renin

15

what converts angiotensin 1 to angiotensin 2

ACE

16

where is ACE released from

lungs

17

what does angiotensin 2 act on

adrenals -- aldosterone release

18

effect of aldosterone on kidneys

sodium + water retention - increased BP

19

effect of increased ADH

concentrated urine
- high osmolarity

20

effect of decreased ADH

dilute urine
- low osmolarity

21

how does ADH work

acts on renal tubules to cause water reabsorption

22

what can cause decreased sodium

SIADH

Addisons disease

23

what is SIADH

syndrome of inappropriate ADH release
- excessive ADH secretion causing water retention and decreased sodium by dilution

24

causes of SIADH

pneumonia
lung cancer
drugs- carbamazepine/ SSRI's
subarachnoid haemorrhage
hypothyroid

25

what is Addison's disease

autoimmune decreased production of cortisol + aldosterone

26

symptoms of Addison's disease

BRONZE SKIN
abdo pain
weakness
weight loss

27

tx Addison's

hydrocortisone as cortisol replacement
fludrocortisone as aldosterone replacement

28

blood results in Addison's

low sodium
high potassium
low cortisol

29

what can cause increased sodium

diabetes insipidus - increased water loss
decreased water intake

30

what non-osmotic stimuli can cause ADH release

hypovolaemia
hypotension
pain
N+V