Flashcards in AS RESEARCH- sampling techniques - ethical issues- quasi exp Deck (25):
what is a sample?
representative of a target population ( the population you are interested in studying)
what are the types of samples?
what is opportunity sample?
ps who are most easily available e.g people who walk past your school
advantage of opportunity sample?
quick and easy to get ps
disadvantage of opportunity sample?
leads to bias
what is volunteer sample?
the researcher advertisers for ps and those that volunteer used in study
advantage of volunteer sample?
advertise in specific place to get ps who reflect target pop e.g doctors?- advertise medical mag
disadvantage of volunteer sample?
lead to volunteer bias - more likely to be motivated individ with lots of spare time
expensive and time consuming to advertise for ps
what is random sample?
everyone in target pop has an equal chance of being selected . you choose from this population using a random technique e.g random numbers generator
advantage of random sample?
everyone = chance = not bias
disadvantage of random sample?
time consuming for right sample
some of ps who randomly selected = may drop out and will end up needing replaced which may lead to biased samp
what is stratified sampling?
sub groups within pop identified, and representative sample is taken randomly from each. quota sampling is the same,except the sample from sub group is taken opportunistically
what are the ethical issues?
deception, informed consent, protection from harm, right to withdraw, confidentiality, privacy
what is deception?
occurs when p is not told true aims of a study or what it will entail. It may involve withholding info or lying. this is because the p may believe differently if they knew aim of research
what is informed consent?
p should be given info about study and role in it. enables them to make and informed decision about whether or not want to participate however full info may change behaviour
what is protection from harm?
harm includes physical harm e.g injury/psychological such as embarrassment, h.w can be hard for experimenter to estimate risks prior to conducting study
what is right to withdraw?
informing a p that they are allowed to withdraw at any point if feel uncomfortable recieve benefits e.g money even if withdraw
what is confidentiality?
personal info obtained about a p should be protected this is a legal right under the data protection act. h.w it can be hard if details from a study lead to an individuals identification
what is privacy?
a person right to control the flow of information about themselves. this can be an issue in covert observations,yet if the p find out they are being observed they may change their b
how to overcome deception?
seek permission from ethics committee to consider costs v benefits. use debriefing where you inform p of true aims and option to withdraw
how to overcome informed consent?
offer right to withdraw and seek retrospective consent during debrief and give option to withdraw data. use presumptive consent involves telling group of people who are similar to p about study and asking if they'd agree to take part
how to overcome protection from harm?
avoid any risks greater than those encountered in everyday life.stop the study as soon as harm becomes apparent
how to overcome confidentiality?
researcher should not use the real names of the p -use initials fake names or numbers. confi info stored securely
how to privacy?
use presumptive consent. only observe people when they are in a situation where they would except to observed by others