AS RESEARCH METHODS- reliability- validity Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in AS RESEARCH METHODS- reliability- validity Deck (23):

what does validity refer to?

soundness or legitimacy of a measurement or study


what should you do in an exam if asked to define validity|?

explain what both internal and external validity are


what is external validity?

the extent to which the results of a study can be generalised to other situations and people


what is internal validity?

whether the researcher tested what he/she set out to test


what are the other types of validity? (4)

mundane realism, experimental realism,ecological validity, population validity


what is mundane realism?

the extent to which features of a study mirror the real world


what is experimental realism?

the extent to which ps believe in the experimental set up and so will behave naturally


what is ecological validity?

the extent to which the research setting where the experiment took place mirrors the real world and therefore whether the study can be generalised to the real world


what is population validity?

whether or not the sample used in the study is representative of the wider population e.g student not necc rep adults


what is meant by threats to validity?

things that might reduce the validity of the study


what are the threats to validity? (4)

controlled setting/contrived research setting
demand characteristics
extraneous variables
social desirability bias


what is a dc?

a cue that makes p aware of way in which experimenter expect them to behave leading to unnatural b


what is a ev?

any variable other than independent variable that might effect d variable e.g time of day ,temp etc


what is a social desir?

p change behaviour in order to appear in a better light


what is reliability?

concerns consistency of results


what is external reliability?

measure of consistency over several occasions e.g should find same results if study replicated -e.g test retest method


what is internal reliability?

extent to which something is consistent with itself e.g all questions on questionnaire should measure same thing


what is the test-re test method?

repeating study on another occassion


what is reliability in experimental research?

ability to replicate study and obtain the same results using test retest method


what is reliability in observational techniques?

assessed by measuring inter rater reliability


what is reliability in self report?

internal reliability can be assessed using split half method which involve comparing persons performance on 2 halves of a test t check that they match up. to assess external the result should repeat after a period of time


what is inter rater reliability?

extent to 2 observers find same results. correlations should be higher than 0.8


potential threats to reliability are?

ambigious qs in q /i
confusing behavioural categories in observation