Flashcards in SCHIZOPHRENIA- psychological explanations Deck (30):
what do explanation derive from for psychological? (3)
3.faulty cognitive processes
studies for psychosocial factors?
studies for family relationships?
vaughn and leff
bateson et al
lidz et al
studies for faulty cognitive processes?
park et al
what are the 2 bullet points for what psychosocial factors are?
1.socioeconomic status:schiz occur more in low socio eco.this could be due to group status being a risk factor for a schiz. alternatively people with schiz may no longer cope adequately with jobs nd relationships and so become part of lower socio eco groups
2. migrant populations:schizo occur more frequent espcially afro carri. this may be due to psychosocial adversity and stress living with racial discrimination
what happened in support for psychosocial factors in fox?
more likely that factors associated with living in poorer conditions e.g stress may trigger onset of schiz compared to individs with schiz moving down social status
opposition for fox?
racial bias may occur in diagnosis of migrant populations so more of such people diagnosed with schiz
opposition for psychosocial factors?
unlikely that social class or economic statuses anything more than contributing factors
what are the 4 bullet points for family relationships?
1.disturbed patterns of communication within families might be a factor in the development of schiz
2. h.w family may play more important role in course of disorder than cause
3.ee may be more important factor in maintaing schiz
4. ee includes hosility,critiscm,over involvement, over concern
what happened in support for family relationships in vaughn and leff?
51% relapse in those of high ee homes compared to 13% in low ee. relapse rates increased more face to face contact of high ee relatives.those who spent less time in high ee were significantly less in relapse
opposition with goldstein?
many patients with schiz are away from their families and are not less prone to relapse despite lack of ee
what happened in support for family relationships in brown?
patients with schiz who returned to homes with high lev of ee showed greater tendancy to relapse than those of low
opposition to brown?
high ee may develop in family as response to burdens of living with a person suffering schiz
what happened in support for family relationships in miklowtiz?
ee is well established maintenance model of schiz. treatment often includes programmes to educated family to control levels of ee
what happened in support for family relationships in bateson et al?
double bind hypothesis- children are given conflicting messages from parents who express care yet simultaneously are critical of children. leads to confusion, self doubt and eventual withdrawal
what happened in support for family relationships in lidz et al?
discord btw parents was associated with schiz in offspring
what are the 3 factors contained with cognitive explanations?
attention- failure to activate schemas- faulty cognitve processes
what are the 3 bullet points for attention?
1.mechanisms that filter the process incoming stimuli are defective in brains schiz patients
2. indivds with schiz cant focus attention selectively and this inability to filter means they attempt to process too much irrell info
3.they are inundated by external stimuli which they are unable to interpret appropriatelty
who is the researcher for failure to activate schemas?
what did helmsey say about failure to activate schemas?
in schiz there is a breakdown in the relationship btw info from memory and new info
what is the 3 bullet points for failure to activate schemas?
1. schemas not activated so schiz are subjected to sensory overload and cant ignore which aspects of sit to attend to and which to ignore on basis of schema
2.superficial incidents are seen as highly relevant and significant
3.internal thoughts are often not recognised as arising from memory and so are thought to be from an external source and experienced auditory hallucinations
who is the researcher for faulty cognitive processes?
what did frith say about faulty cognitive processes? with 3 no.s?
schiz patients unable to distinguish btw actions that are brought about externally or generated internally
symptoms of schiz can be explained as result of;
1-inability to generate voluntary action
2.inability to monitor vol action
3. inability to monitor beliefs and intentions of others
what are the 3 numbers/factors part of with frith?
meta- representation which allows us to understand the beliefs and intentions of others
what is faulty operation due to?
functional disconnection btw frontal areas of the brain concerned with action and more posterior areas of the brain that control perception
what happened in support for cognitive explanations frith?
evidence where changes in cerebral blood flow in the brains of people with schiz when they are engage in specific cognitive tasks
opposition for frith?
frith criticised as being reductionist where his theory fails to take into account environmental factors
what happened in support for cognitive explanations in helmsey?
tentative research in animals has found a neurological relationship between problems in hippocampus and schema activation failure
opposition for helmsey?
cog theories dont explain causes only symptoms of schiz