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1

In assessing advanced language _________ area of language is where we'll see the most differences

Pragmatic

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Assessment Domains

Pragmatics

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Within assessing Pagmatics-looking at 2 things

1. areas of assessment
2. methods

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Areas of assessment has 4 categories (similar to learning to language stage)- looking to see if it makes sense/jarring

1. initiation and responsiveness
2. turn taking and repair (long awkward pause)
3. topic structure (global topic and then it flows together/makes sense bec cohesion and coherence are more local)
4. cohesion/coherence (more local-individual sentence flowing into-so something related to that topic structure but it doesn't flow with the topic structure-that would be a problem with cohesion/coherence)

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Methods in Assessing Pragmatics

1. norm-referenced
2. structured observation
3. role playing (negotiation and register variation)
4. other
5. expository texts
6. persuasive and argumentative texts
7. written text assessment
8. the metas
9. functional communication

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Norm referenced:

looking at convo but natural is better
-Norm referenced are useful for establishing eligibility-want to look at what child is having difficulty with

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Structured observation

watch child communicate-all day long but still might not get everything-so you start the topic and hope the kid will ask a question/make a comment-act like you didn't get something and play dumb-little difficult/contradictory and see how they use language to negotiate that one-sets up natural situation w/ a child. not something where you go and observe child you're actually going in there

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Role playing (negotiation and register variation)

want to look at their ability to negotiate-simple task; pretend like you bought something, see that child can talk about igt-pretend mom came into school and was embarrassing
-register variation: can they use the appropriate language for the context? talking to mother vs. teacher vs. peer

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Other discourse genres of Assessing Pragmatics

1. classroom discourse
2. narrative text (microstructure, macrostructure, inferencing, summarizing, cohesion, literate language)

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classroom discourse

certain skills need to be in tact in order for them to be successful in the class

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narrative text

type of genre important for classroom; tells story; being logical in your communication, being able to clarify a message/recognize message is not coming across the way you want it to- be able to take classroom perspectives and then the appropriate turn taking. go in, sit, and watch

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microstructure

syntax and semantics; kids w/ lld ahve probs with this! not the # of complex sentences, but there are far more errors in semantics and syntax. you'd think they would use fewer complex sentences but they can do that they just mess them up

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Macrostructure

story grammar; biggest prob here is internal responses of the characters (things that aren't over) they would get who the main characters were but if you said "why did cat run away?" they would struggle

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Inferencing

when text doesn't expliticly state that's when they have more of a problem

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summarazing

when you listen to these kids talk and they want to tell a story- you need to be able to tell the same thing; atempts to solution-these kids will leave big chunks out. even if they hit them all the sequence will be jumbled up/won't know what happened.

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Cohesion

lexical; using words as cohesive device; linking concepts- don't want to restate so you want to use pronouns- "he's the tallest in the family i'm the shortest" don't have to say i'm the shortest IN THE FAMILY- shows their sentences and what the other person can understand
*most difficult part of a narrative*
-references: pronouns/proverbs "tom ran a race and he won"
-substitute in the cohesion are like using a synonym for a referent- "utensils for spoons in a sentence..reflects more literate language*

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Literate language

use of more sophisticated vocabulary (kind of involved in each one)-the way we write is different

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Expository texts

1. comprehension
2. production (standardized tests, artifact assessment on topic of student interest)

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expository texts

like a textbook-to inform facts, news articles, self help books opposed to narratives- kids w/ LLD comprehend these expository texts much less well than typically developing kids

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Reading comprehension

have difficulty answering questions just about the literate context
-have difficulty w/ inferential questions
-have more difficulty summarizing w/ narratives-hear a lot of missing info so shorter and syntactically less complete
-scaffold textbook: go over vocab, summarize

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Production

1. Standardized test: OWLS-global
2. Artifact assessment: *best* because take that and analyze structures/cohesive device-do topics of assessment on student

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Persuasive and argumentative texts

not a requirement for 12 year olds but comes later

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Written text assessment

1. writing process
2. written product (fluency, lexical maturity, sentential syntax, mechanical errors, holistic ratings)

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Written text assessment

what types of writing required for curriculum

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5 steps to producing written text and you want to see if child does this

1. brainstorm
2. outline and first rough draft
3. revise
4. editing
5. publication/drafting

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When you assess written product you assess

1. fluency
2. lexical maturity
3. sentential syntax
4. mechanical errors
5. holistic ratings

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fluency

making sure it's long enough, provides enough detail, # of words spelled correctly, looking at word sequences/2 words at a time- "I am going store" i am going iscorrect

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Lexical maturity

how many words in the document contain more than 7 letters- words with more than 7 letters shows written maturity

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Sequential syntax

looking at 2 unit language, looking for more complex syntax, if you have 2 independent clauses that would be less sophisticated than a dependent clause, look at # of grammatical errors-when look @ grammatical errors, make sure child doesn't have a dialect difference

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Mechanical errors

look at this in written text: look for poor legibility, capitalization, paragraph segmentation

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holistic ratings

overall quality of writing about how it grabs you-how clear it is/how interesting is it

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Assessing the "Metas"

1. metalinguistics
2. metapragmatics
3. comprehension monitoring
4. metacognition

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metalinguistics

when they correct/edit their own work/also editing other people's work, praphrasing something they've read

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metapragmatics

get more sophisticated in this age range about interacting with others- body language, eye contact

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comprehension monitoring

raising hand to ak question, kids w/ lld go right through it-they don't know to do that. set them up/give them something in writing that doesn't make sense and ask them a question. ask if they understood that or to paraphrase it. give them something they want to read

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metacognition

problem solving/executive functioning/planning out loud- use dynamic cueing!!! might have to say it back to them. "charlie forgot homework.-you say: okay who gave it to you. what should you do?"

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functional communication

look for what kids are going to do after high school-if not where are they headed? what kinds of differen things do kids do after school that have LLD; we have to plan vocational route, etc.

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ITP

individual transition plans

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What age can ITPs be developed at?

age 14- but not the law. it MUST be started by age 16
-at 16, talking about are they going to graduage or get ged?

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ITP

addresses progress toward graduation

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ITP

plan for child to be successful in the community-what do they need access to?

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ITP

make preliminary plans for success in the community

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Students w/ ASD at the Advanced language stage exhibit:

1. may have strong academic skills
2. may require support for development of daily living and self care
*pragmatics is always impaired even in high functioning kids!*

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assessing pragmatics in ASD students at the advanced language stage

1. norm referenced parent report scales
2. convo pragmatic assessments during peer interactions
3. prosody should be considered

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For students in the advanced language stage, you can perform a structured observation by eliciting conversation through?

Initiating topic and asking a question

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Children in the advanced language stage tend to demonstrate significant differences in the # of complex sentences produced in narratives

FALSE

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Children in the advanced language stage tend to demonstrate significantly more difficulty in comprehending literal and inferential content of expository texts

TRUE

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one way to assess lexical maturity in children in the advanced language stage is to count # of words containing

more than 7 letters

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Metacognitive skills in the advanced language stage include the ability to edit someone else's work

FALSE- that's a metalinguistic skill