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Psychology B541 > Attachment > Flashcards

Flashcards in Attachment Deck (19)
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What is Attachment?

An enduring bond formed with a significant other


What is Separation protest

When someone shows distress and upset upon separation from significant other


What is stranger anxiety?

When an individual shows distress in presence of an unfamiliar person


What is a secure attachment?

A relationship based on trust and security


What is an insecure avoidant attachment?

A relationship in which child is independent of caregiver


What is an insecure ambivalent attachment?

A relationship where the child is clingy and demanding. Yet awkward too


What is the core theory of attachment?

Bowlby's theory


What does Bowlby's theory state

1. Monotropy - Attachment formed with one person during a critical period of 0-3 years
2. Privation - when attachment is not formed during critical period
3. Deprivation - Attachment is formed and later broken


What are the effects of deprivation in Bowlby's theory?

Intellectual retardation
Dependency anxiety
Affectionless psychopath
Social maladjustment


What are the criticisms of Bowlby's theory

1. The theory doesnt explain how children can form multiple attachments
2. Critical period is too extreme. (studies show that children can form strong attachments with significant others
3. Bowlby states the effects of deprivation are irreversible but that isn't always the case
4. His theory ignores the role of nurture


What is the alternative theory of attachment?

The behaviourists theory


What does this theory state?

1. Behaviourists believe that attachment is formed by learning and experience. (through reinforcement)
2. Positive reinforcement - If a child does an action (smiling, cooing) which they are rewarded for (attention/feeding/comforting), they would do it again and soon build an attachment with the caregiver.
3. Negative reinforcement - If a child does an action (screaming), and they are punished for it, they wont do it again and so an attachment is less likely to be formed


What is the core study of attachment?

Hazen and Shaver (The love quiz)


What was the aim of this study?

To see if there is a relationship between attachment type and later love life


What was the procedure of this experiment?

1. Placed love quiz in american newspaper
2. Received many replies but could only use 620 replies
3. Sample aged between 14-82


What were the results of this experiment?

- Secure attachment in early life = Confident adult relationship
- Avoidant early attachment type = Jealous, bipolar, adult relationship
- Ambivalent early attachment type = Obsession, Extreme jealousy and Lust in adult relationship


What was the conclusion of this study?

There was a clear relationship between infant attachment type and Intimate adult relationships


What were the limitations of this study?

1) Sample was self-selecting - Not representative of all groups so results cant be generalised
2) Demand characteristics - since it was a quiz, it was easy for people to lie and exaggerate their answers
3) Used closed questions - Hard to see the effect of extraneous variables on their relationship


What are the applications of research into attachment?

1) Care of children in hospitals - The quicker the contact between mother and child, the stronger the bond. (before, babies were kept from mothers)
2) Care of children in nurseries - There is a debate on the fact that children may form attachments with nannies, not parents
3) Care of children in families - Before: parents would raise children on their own. Now: Organisations can help families create an early bond