Flashcards in Obedience Deck (29)
Define the term obedience
Following orders or commands from people in authority
Define the term authority
A level of status or power
Define the term defiance
Resisting orders or commands from people in authority
Define the term denial of responsibility
Blaming actions on a higher authority rather than accepting the blame yourself
What four factors does the situational factors theory suggest affects the level of obedience?
Define the term consensus
When everyone agrees on something
What are three main criticisms of the situational factors explanation of obedience?
- It ignores the role of personality in obedience
- Research into situational factors can often be unethical
- A lot of the research lacks ecological validity
Define the term dispositional factors?
Factors that are associated with someones personality in obedience
Define the term authoritarian personality?
Someone who is more likely to obey to commands/orders
What did Bickman Aim to find out?
If a persons uniform/appearance affects someone's level of obedience
What method did Bickman use in his study?
A field experiment
How many participants took part in the study?
What was the sampling technique?
Where did the study take place?
On a street in Brooklyn, New York
What was the independent variable?
Whether one of the three confederates wore the uniform of a guard, a milkman, or a civilian
What the dependent variable?
Someone's level of obedience towards the confederates in uniform
What 3 instructions did the experimenters ask the participants?
- Pick up litter
- Give a dime to a stranger
- Stand on the other side of a bus stop
What percentage of participants obeyed the guard?
What percentage of participants obeyed the milkman?
What percentage of participants obeyed the civilian?
What did Bickman conclude from the results?
Someones uniform/appearance affects the level of obedience shown towards them
What are the methodological limitations of this study?
- The study cannot be generalised as it only took place in New York
- The study used opportunity sampling
- They only used male confederates
- As it was a field experiment, there was a lack of control over extraneous variables.
What real life situation can research into obedience be applied to?
- Armed forces
How is research into obedience relevant to schools?
There needs to be a level of obedience in schools for them to function effectively
How is order maintained in schools?
Students are punished/given sanctions when they do not obey someone in authority (teachers)
How is research into obedience relevant to the armed forces?
Its important to understand the hierarchy of the armed forces to understand how it works effectively e.g what would happen to a soldier if they disobey the general?
How is authority maintained in the armed forces?
Those higher in power in the armed forces wear a different uniform than the soldiers
How is research into obedience relevant to prisons?
There needs to be a level of obedience in prisons for it to function effectively and safely