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Psychology B541 > Memory > Flashcards

Flashcards in Memory Deck (17)
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What are the steps of information processing?

1. Input - Data entry
2. Encoding - Information being made into a different format so it could be made sense of.
3. Storage - Keeping information for later use
4. Retrieval - Finding the file for use
5. Output - Information being used


What are accessibility problems?

Problems with retrieving data from storage


What are availability problems?

Problems where the information is no longer in the memory


What is the core theory of Memory?

Multi Store Model

1. Information enters the memory and is encoded. Stays in the sensory memory for 2 seconds
2. If information is given attention, it goes to the STM. (Capacity: 7+/-2 - Duration: 20 seconds) If it is not given attention in the sensory memory, it will decay.
3. Information must be rehearsed to stay in the STM. Once rehearsed, info can move into the LTM (Capacity and duration:unlimited)
4. To get info out of LTM, must be taken out of STM using Maintenance rehearsal


Evaluate the Core theory of memory

- Ignores individual differences (some remember more/less)
- Theory is too simplistic and takes a reductionist approach (STM does more and the LTM is a lot more complex so they should be groups within them)
- Over emphasises the role of rehearsal as some things can be experienced once and enter the LTM.


What is the alternative theory?

Levels of Processing theory - we only remember things if they hold meaning to us. Ignores the strict structure of the multi store model


What is shallow processing?

Remembering information based on its physical characteristics and not with meaning e.g. remembering a colour of a slogan


What is deep processing?

remembering information through meaning. Information that is deeply processed can be remembered longer since it has a deeper meaning to us.


What was the core study for memory?

Terry 2005


What was the aim of the study?

To show whether space and time affect memory


What was the procedure?

1- Gathered 39 students from one culture and showed them 15 adverts that were 10 months old and were no longer than 30 seconds.
2- Repeated measures experiment so the sample took part in both conditions
3. Condition 1 - Participants were to remember the adverts straight after they were shown.
4. Condition 2 - Participants were to remember the adverts 3 minutes after the adverts were shown, in which they were to to do a written task to distract them


What was the independent variable?

Whether the recall was straight away, or whether the recall was delayed by 3 minutes in which participants were to complete a written task


What was the dependent variable?

The amount of adverts the students were able to recall


What were the findings?

Both conditions showed a serial position effect.

Condition 1 - There was a primary and recency effect as the participants remembered the first and last adverts

Condition 2 - There was only a recency effect as the participants remembered the last adverts.


What did Terry conclude from the study?

Memory is affected by serial position (time and space) and not by meaning


What are the limitations of Terry's study?

1. The study lacks ecological validity
2. Study lacks construct validity as there is much more to memory than recalling adverts
3. Participants could have shown demand characteristics (changed their behaviour)


What are some applications of research into memory?

Memory aids

1. Colour coding - helps students to associate a topic with a colour. The colour could trigger a persons memory to help them remember
2. Mnemonics - helps people remembers information as it enters the memory in chunks, which makes it easily stored. Offer a fun and silly way to remember something which is more memorable to learn
3. Mindmaps - reflect how the memory is organised so it can help us retrieve information from our memory