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Flashcards in Atypical Behaviour Deck (31)
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1

Define typical behaviour

Behaviour which is considered normal, usually because it applies to the majority of people

2

What does atypical behaviour mean?

Behaviour that is considered abnormal, usually because it applies to a minority of people

3

What is the definition of a phobia?

An irrational fear of something

4

What is agoraphobia?

A fear of open spaces

5

What is social phobia?

A fear of embarrassing yourself in public

6

What is school phobia?

A fear of school

7

What is acrophobia?

A fear of heights

8

What is arachnophobia?

A fear of spiders

9

What is the core theory of atypical behaviour?

The behaviourist's theory

10

What is the key concept of the behaviourist's theory?

Behaviourists believe in classical conditioning (learning through association.

11

What is an unconditioned stimulus?

Something that naturally caused a response

12

What is an unconditioned response?

An instinctive reflex from the body

13

What is a neutral stimulus?

Something that would not cause a response on its own

14

What is a conditioned stimulus?

Something that triggers a learnt response

15

What is a conditioned response?

A learnt response

16

Describe the process of classical conditioning

Pavlov's Dogs

1. UCS (food) = UCR (dog salivating)
2. UCS (food) + NS (bell) = UCS (dog salivating) REPEAT
3. CS (bell) = CS (dog salivating)

17

What is operant conditioning?

Learning through consequences e.g if you cry because of a spider and you are comforted, you may learn to cry every time you see a spider so you can be comforted again, and hence grow a phobia

18

What is extinction?

When a phobic association is weakened over time

19

Evaluate the behaviourist theory

1. It ignores the thinking behind an action as some people are able to rationalise the associated stimulus while others are not
2. Ignores the role played by others around you e.g if you're scared of a bee in front of your parents, they would tell you to stop being silly and you'd think nothing of it but if you're with a friend who was also scared, the event may have seemed scarier than it was
and you may develop a phobia
3. Some people have phobias of things that they have never encountered

20

What is the alternative theory?

Evolutionary theory

21

What does this theory suggest?

This theory suggests that animals have evolved to have instinctive behaviours. (nature over nurture)
- All animals want to survive and reproduce so we fear things which threaten these things such as e.g heights, the dark, closed spaces, flying
- Animals such as snakes and lions pose a threat to our survival as they are most unlike
- It is much harder to get rid of phobias which threaten survival

22

What is preparedness?

Instinctively aware of dangers

23

What is the core study of atypical behaviour?

Watson and Rayner - Little Albert (1920)

24

What was the aim of this study?

To test the theory of classical conditioning

25

Who was the main participant of the study?

Little Albert

26

What was the method used in this study?

Lab experiment

27

Describe the procedure for the study

1. Albert had no fear of rats, furry objects/animals at the start of the study. This is clear as Albert was reaching out to stroke them, showing no fear.
2. The rat was offered to Albert again and as he reached out to stroke it, Watson hit a hammar against a steel bar to frighten him. (repeated several times over the next few weeks)

28

What was the result of the experiment?

Soon after the experiment was repeated a few times, Albert shows signs of fear towards the rat. However, after a break of 10 days later, the fear subsided.

29

What was the conclusion of Little Albert's study?

Someone can be conditioned to fear a stimuli

30

Evaluate the study

1. it was a lab experiment - low in ecological validity
2. Only one participant was used - results cannot be generalised
3. Highly unethical as they caused distress in the participant