Flashcards in Attachment - The Strange Situation Deck (22):
Who came up with the Strange Situation?
Ainsworth and Bell
What was the aim of the Strange Situation?
To produce a method to assess the quality of attachment by placing an infant in a situation of mild stress and novelty to assess quality of attachment
What were the 4 behaviours observed from the Strange Situation?
Willingness to explore
Name the 3 behaviour types
Type A: insecure avoidant
Type B: secure
Type C: insecure resistant
Describe Secure (B)
Subdued when their mother left, explored the unfamiliar room and greeted the mother positively
Describe Insecure Avoidant (A)
Didn't seem concerned by mother's absence, didn't orient towards mother while investigating and showed little interest upon her return
Describe Insecure Resistant (C)
Showed intense distress when left and rejected the mother when she returned
What were the results from Ainsworth and Bell's strange situation?
List 2 evaluative points of Ainsworth and Bell's strange situation
1. Low population validity (only Middle-class American infants, findings and conclusions are culturally based)
2. Low ecological validity (do results apply outside the lab?)
What is the caregiver sensitivity hypothesis?
Belief that the attachment types resulted from the mother's behaviour
Name and explain the procedure of a study looking at multiple strange situation cases
Van Izendoorn and Kroonenberg
Analysed results of 32 studies (over 2000 children) done in 5 individualistic cultures and 3 collectivistic cultures (China, Japan, Israel)
State and explain the results of a study into multiple strange situation cases
Individualistic cultures: fewer resistant, more avoidant
Collectivistic: Opposite of individualistic with the exception of China (both avoidant and resistant 25%)
Name and explain a study into the cultural differences of the strange situation, including the results
Observed the strange situation for 60 Japanese infants.
32% classified as resistant-insecure, and all observed to be very distressed when left alone
Why might there be differences in Japanese culture for the strange situation?
Because in Japan there is a difference in child rearing; being left alone is rare for them (never separated from their mothers) and they are taught that avoiding is disrespectful. This would mean that variation in results would be due to difference in responses to the strange situation, not different types of attachments
State 2 evaluative points of Takahashi's study
1. Ethical issues: Risk of mental harm, violates protection of participants
2. Population validity: Limited sample of middle class home reared Japanese infants (cannot generalise to all Japanese people)
State 2 methodological points of Van Izendoorn and Kroonenberg's research
1. Strength: Large sample (2000 children) necessary for a meta analysis; can generalise findings
2. May not be truly representative: Over half (18) of studies carried out in the US, 27 from individualistic cultures, 5 from collectivistic
Name and explain a study into the cultural differences in Germany for the strange situation
Grossmann and Grossmann
Infants in West Germany (where independence is highly valued and encouraged) showed little distress at separation, being classified as avoidant
What is being socially sensitive?
Not assuming that the more common attachment type is the best in all cultures
Explain Alviezer's study
Looked at babies living in the kibbutz system in Israel, arguing that babies who sleep together in large dormitories makes them more likely to lead to insecure-resistant attachments.
What changes were made after Alviezer's study?
Many systems changed their practice to make it more family-like; returned to parents at night to sleep in the family house
What is the problems with having one study to represent a country?
It may not be a representation of what the country is like all the time; more than 1 study should be carried out per country