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Who came up with the Multi-Store model?

Atkinson and Schiffrin


What is the process of the Multi-Store mode? (flow diagram)

(Incoming stimuli)

Sensory memory

(Recoding process)/(lost through decay)


(rehearsal)/(lost through decay or displacement)


(lost through decay/retrieval failure/interference)


What are the strengths of the Multi-Store memory model?

-Studies/Case studies supporting the existence of 2 separate stores (Murdock/Henry M)

-First representation of memory in model form, explaining much of which we know to be true


What are the weaknesses of the Multi-store memory model?

-Too simplistic and inflexible to adequately represent the complexity of human memory (doesn't consider memory strategies)
-STM as a unitary store (brains can deal with lots of information simultaneously)
-Flow of information assumed 1 way (but LTM sometimes helps with STM)
-Suggestion that rehearsal is the only means of transfer to LTM, but people remember things they haven't rehearsed
-Provides a passive explanation of memory instead of active


Who came up with the Working Memory model?

Baddeley and Hitch


Outline what the Working Memory Model does

Working model proposes an active, multi-component short term memory store with each sub-system having its own role to play in learning, problem solving and concentration.


What is the central executive in the Working Memory model?

-Control centre: co-ordinates the 3 slave systems
-Processes information from any of the senses
-Has minimal capacity
-Controls attention; if doing 2 things at once it diverts between the two


What is the phonological loop in the Working Memory Model?

Holds speech based sounds for brief periods. Has 2 components:
-phonological store: (inner ear) briefly stores acoustically encoded items
-articulatory control: (inner voice) allows subvocal repetition of the items stored in phonological store.


What is the process in which the phonological loop is prevented from retaining further information?

Articulatory suppression


What is the visuo-spatial scratch pad in the Working Memory model?

'inner eye' with limited capacity
Responsible for setting up and manipulating mental images


What is the episodic buffer in the Working Memory Model?

-Integrates and manipulates material in working memory
-Has limited capacity
-Integrates material from LTM to aid information in the STM


What concept does research into the Working Memory model rely on?

The idea that if the same component is used to carry out 2 tasks simultaneously then both actions will be impaired, but if they use different components, both will be carried out as normal


What are the strengths of the Working Memory model?

-Has advantages over multi-store model because it explains our ability to do tasks simultaneously
-Evidence support for the phonological loop and the visuo-sptial scratch-pad
-Still being expanded today
-PED scans show different areas of the brain to be in use when different parts of the system are in use


What evidence is there for the phonological loop?

Baddeley et al (1975)
Looked at word length. When participants were prevented from rehearsal using articulatory suppression, the word-length had no effect on how much was recalled. This implies that the articulatory suppression task filled up the phonological loop


What evidence is there for the visuo-sptaial scratch pad?

Baddeley et al (1973)
Gave participants a simple tracking task involving holding a pointer in contact with a moving spot of light, whilst simultaneously imagining the block capital letter F and carrying out a imagery task with that. Participants struggled to do both tasks at the same time, but had no problem doing one in conjunction with a verbal task (tasks competing for the limited resources of the visuo-spatial scratchpad)


What are the weaknesses of the Working Memory model?

-Little knowledge about the central executive (not able to quantify the capacity)
-The theory is arguably unfalsifiable (terminology for the central executive is vague and can be used to explain any results)