Flashcards in Biological - Stress Management Deck (33):
What does behaviour depend on?
The pattern of electrical activity (nerve impulses)
What effect does a neurotransmitter that makes positive ions rush in have?
An excitatory effect
What effect does a neurotransmitter that makes negative ions rush in have?
An inhibitory effect
Give 2 examples of BZs
What subjective effect do BZs have on someone who is stressed?
Calms people down
In which part of the nervous system do BZs operate
Central Nervous System
Which receptor sites do BZs bind to?
What does the effect of BZs binding to gaba receptors have?
It opens them: allows negatively charged chloride ions to pass inside the neuron
Why does the passing of negatively charged chloride ions into neurons help with stress?
It makes the nueron less responsive to other neurotransmitters that would normally excite it
Name a beta blocker
In which part of the nervous system do beta blockers operate?
Sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system
Which neurotransmitters/hormones are beta adrenergic receptors responsive to?
What do beta blockers do?
Bind to beta-adrenergic receptors to stop adrenaline binding to them, which slows the heart beat, meaning less stress
What are the two approaches to managing stress?
What are the side effects of BZs?
State 3 problems with using drugs to manage stress
-They only target symptoms (don't target the root cause)
-Risk of dependency with BZs (withdrawal)
-Tolerance (need an increasingly higher dosage)
What is good about using drugs to treat stress?
-Speed and effectiveness
-Availability (can be prescribed immediately)
What did a meta analysis into drugs as a way of treating stress conclude?
BZs were more effective than other drugs (e.g antidepressants)
Who came up with stress inoculation therapy?
What assumption is SIT based upon?
that people sometimes find situations stressful because they think about them in catastrophising ways.
What are the 3 stages to SIT?
2. Skills and training practice
3. Real life application
What is Conceptualisation in SIT?
Identifying the link between irrational thoughts and feelings of stress
What is Skills training and practice in SIT?
Development of cognitive strategies to work as coping strategies which counteract the negative self statements.
They practice behavioural skills (relaxation techniques)
What is real life application in SIT?
Client encouraged to apply the training to the real world, gradually increasing the intensity of stress
What are the 3 aspects to Hardiness training?
-Focussing (clients taught to recognise the symptoms of stress)
-Reliving stressful encounters (thinking of better ways to have dealt with them)
-Self-improvement (that challenges can be coped with)
What are 2 positive points about using SIT?
-It targets symptoms and causes (reduces the gap between demands and coping resources)
-Effectiveness: (combination of cognitive therapy and behavioural therapy makes it a powerful method of stress management)
What are 2 negative points about using SIT?
-Practicality: (Requires time, money, motivation and commitment)
-Difficulties: (stress could be inherent, making cognitive and behaviour hard to change)
What are 3 evaluative points on hardiness training?
-Theoretical issues (concept of hardiness is criticised)
-Generalising (Kobasa's studies usually only involve white middle class business men, so has low population validity)
-Effectiveness and practicality (time, commitment and motivation)
Name a study into the evaluation of SIT
State the procedure of Meichenbaum's study
Studied anxious pre-exam college students with 3 conditions:
1) 8 weeks of SIT
2) 8 weeks of systematic desensitisation (behavioural)
3) no therapy
Efficiency was evaluated through exam performance and self-reports
What were the findings from Meichenbaum's study?
That the SIT group gave the most positive self reports and outperformed the other students in their exams.
What were the conclusions from Meichenbaum's study?
That SIT as a cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) helps to reduce anxiety in stressful situations