Flashcards in Biological - Stress and the Immune System Deck (31):
What is the name of the part of the peripheral nervous system which is involved in the stress response?
The AUTONOMIC nervous system
What are the two branches called that the autonomic nervous system divides into?
the SYMPATHETIC branch and the PARASYMPATHETIC branch
What does the dominance of the sympathetic branch do?
Leads to bodily arousal and increased heart rate and blood pressure
What does the dominance of the parasympathetic branch do?
Leads to bodily calm
What triggers the fight or flight response?
Events which we perceive as physically or psychologically threatening
What components does SAM involve?
the AUTONOMIC NS
the hormones ADRENALINE and NORADRENALINE
What components does PAS involve?
What are the 6 stages of SAM?
3. ANS sympathetic branch
4. Stimulates Adrenal Medulla
5. Releases Adrenaline and Noradrenaline
6. Fight or Flight response
What is the Fight or Flight response?
Increase in blood pressure, heart rate and sweat-gland activity
What are the 6 stages of PAS?
3. Pituitary gland
4. Release of ACTH
5. Stimulates Adrenal Cortex
6. Release of Corticosteroids into bloodstream
What are the 2 effects of PAS?
1. Suppression of the Immune system
2. Conversion of fat and protein into energy
What is the Tend and Befriend response to stress?
When women resort to caring for offspring and befriending other females during times of stress
What are the 2 types of Immunity?
What are the 2 types of Specific Immunity?
List 2 studies looking at stress and the immune system
What type of study was Cohen?
How did Cohen measure stress?
A Stress Index score
What 3 scores made the stress index score in Cohen's study?
1. Score from questionnaires on stressful life events
2. Degree of stress
3. Level of negative emotions
What were the findings from Cohen's study?
That people who became ill with the common cold were significantly correlated to those with the higher stress index score
What are 3 Methodological issues with Cohen's study?
1. Indirect study (no direct measures of immune function, only illness outcomes)
2. No direct manipulation of IV (cannot confirm cause and effect)
3. Doesn't say which element of stress index is most important
Give an outline of Kiecolt-Glaser's study into stress and the immune system
Looked at number of NK cells of 75 medical students a month before their exams and then during exams
What were the findings from Kiecolt-Glaser's study?
That NK cell activity was significantly reduced in high stress samples
What type of experiment was Kiecolt-Glaser's study into stress and the immune system?
What are 4 Methodological issues with Kiecolt-Glaser's study?
1. Looked at immune function (so cannot confirm this resulted in illness)
2. Only medical students (population validity)
3. NK cells may not have effected the whole system
4. No manipulation of IV (can't confirm cause and effect)
What did Segerstorm and Miller do?
Did a Meta-review of stress research
What is Acute time limited stress and give an example (Segerstorm and Miller)
Stress lasting between 5 and 100 minutes, such as public speaking
What is Brief naturalistic stress and give an example (Segerstorm and Miller)
Everyday stressors of limitted duration, such as exams
What is Chronic stress and give and example (Segerstorm and Miller)
Long lasting stressors including caring for dementia patients or coping with a long term illness
What is the overall effect of Acute time limited stress? (Segerstorm and Miller)
Improvement in immune functioning
What is the overall effect of Brief naturalistic stress? (Segerstorm and Miller)
No overall effect on immune function (contradicts Kiecolt-Glaser)