Attention deficit/Hyperactivity disorder Flashcards Preview

Pediatrics > Attention deficit/Hyperactivity disorder > Flashcards

Flashcards in Attention deficit/Hyperactivity disorder Deck (15):

Etiological risk factors

Genetic predisposition
Low birth weight
Maternal smoking



• genetic: dopamine candidate genes, catecholamine/neuroanatomical hypothesis
• cognitive: developmental disability, inhibitory control and other errors of executive function
• arousal: alterations in the sensory system filters



learning disorders, hearing/visual defects, thyroid, atopic conditions, congenital
problems (fetal alcohol syndrome, Fragile X), lead poisoning, history of head injury, traumatic
life events (abuse)


Diagnosis criteria

diagnosis (3 subtypes):
1. ƒƒCombined Type: 6 or more symptoms of inattention and 6 or more symptoms of
2. ƒƒPredominantly Inattentive Type: 6 or more symptoms of inattention
3. ƒƒPredominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive Type: 6 or more symptoms of hyperactivityimpulsivity

symptoms persist for >6 mo
ƒƒonset before age 7
ƒƒsymptoms present in at least two settings (i.e. home, school, work)
ƒ interferes with academic, family, and social functioning
ƒƒdoes not occur exclusively during the course of another psychiatric disorder


Features of inattention (9)

Careless mistakes
Cannot sustain attention in tasks or play
Does not listen when spoken to directly
Fails to complete tasks
Avoids, dislikes tasks that require
sustained mental effort
Loses things necessary for tasks or


Features of hyperactivity (6)

Fidgets, squirms in seat
Leaves seat when expected to remain
Runs and climbs excessively
Cannot play quietly
On the “go”, driven by a motor
Talks excessively


Features of impulsivity (3)

Blurts out answers before questions
Difficulty awaiting turn
Interrupts/intrudes on others


Potential future/current risks for child with ADHD

risk of substance abuse, particularly cannabis and cocaine, depression, anxiety, academic failure,
poor social skills, risk of comorbid CD and/or ODD, risk of adult ASPD



1. non-pharmacological:
->parent management,
->anger control strategies, behavioural management,
->positive reinforcement,
->social skills training,
->individual/family therapy,
->resource room, tutors, classroom intervention,
->exercise routines, extracurricular activities
2. pharmacological
ŠŠa. stimulants: methylphenidates [Ritalin®, Concerta® (long-acting)], Biphentin®
b. ŠŠamphetamines: dextroamphetamine, mixed amphetamine salts (Adderall®), lisdexamfetamine (Vyvanse®)
c. ŠŠSNRI: atomoxetine (Strattera®)->for those with + risk of substance misuse, for comorbid symptoms: antidepressants, antipsychotics


When advising parents about helping their child with ADHA what components need to be address

1. Verbal instructions
2. Written work
3. Avoiding over-activity and fatigue
4. Other learning
5. Structure
6. Self esteem
7. Social skills
8. Communication between school and home
9. Homework completion


Verbal instruction and written and other learning strategies

Brief and conscise
Tap and say name->make eye contract
Monitor, encourage and support
Ask child to repeat instruction to be sure they understood

Highlight important points
Limit copying from blackboard

One to one
Classroom buddy
Hands on
Scheduling at best concentration
Checklist of tasks
Front of class, limit distractions
Avoid clutter


Avoiding over-actvitiy, structuring

Regular rest breaks
Physical actvity dispersed with academic

Advise in advance of changes to routine
Prepare them for what is expected next
Organised and scheduling


Self esteem and social skills

Congratulate on work
Highlight the positives in achievements for the day
Involve in smaller groups
Reward appropriate sharing/cooperation
Tech responses when feel provoked->walk away, talk with teacher
Encourage supervised socialising->sporting groups
Talk with them about the consequences of their actions
Use visual prompts to remind then to think before acting->Stop, think, do


Is there a link with diet

1. No specific scientific evidence
2. If parents believe there is a link, they have observed a correlation can avoid


Counselling use of psychostimulants->methylphenidate

1. Thought to increase DA/NE, improves frontal lobe
2. Precautions in: hepatic, cardiac, psychiatric, pregnancy
3. Adverse
ND, dry mouth
Loss of appetite, weight loss
TachyC, palpitation
4. Overall growth->generally normal, mostly insignificant but continue to monitor weight and growth
5. Avoid in early afternoon if difficulty with sleep
6. Can make feel dizzy
7. Assess CV function before
8. Measure and monitor height and weight
9. Do not continue if no benefit
10. When used for ADHD does not increase risk

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