Auditory System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Auditory System Deck (41):
1

What are the 3 fluid-filled cavities of the cochlea?

Reissner's membrane
Basilar membrne
Transduction

2

Where is the Scala media closed off at?

The apex

3

What connects the Scala tympani and the Scala vestibuli?

helicotrema

4

What is continuous at the Scala tympani and the Scala Vestibuli?

Perilymph

5

What meets the round window?

Scala vestibuli

6

What meets at the oval window?

Scala tympani

7

Describe the Basilar Membrane

Flexible
Vibrates in sync with fluid motion

8

What determines the distance that a particular frequency travels?

The width and flexibility of the basilar membrane

9

What opens the TRPA1 channels?

Force towards kinocilium

10

What connects transduction channels (Cation channels on hairs)

Tip links

11

What inputs do inner hair cells receive?

Afferent

12

What inputs do outer hair cells receive?

Efferent

13

What is the motor protein composed of?

Prestin

14

What does Furosemide affect?

Inactivates the membrane motor so reveals its influence

15

What is endolymphs potential?

80mV

16

What potential is generated to the sterocilia membrane?

120 mV

17

Is there higher or lower Potassium levels in the endolymph?

Higher

18

What are the two coding systems for the auditory nerve?

Place code
Temporal code

19

What frequency level does Place code do?

Higher frequency

20

What frequency does Temporal code do?

21

In the brain, what is the pathway from ear end?

CN VIII
Trapeziod body
medulla
Intermediate acoustic site
Superior olivary nuclei
nucleus of the lateral lemniscus
Inferior colliculus
Medial geniculate nucleus
Primary auditory cortex

22

What are the 3 branches of the VIII nerve?

Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus (DCN)
Posteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (PVCN)
Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus (AVCN)

23

What does tonotopy ensure?

Each neurone innervates several different areas and different neuron types

24

What do the semicircular canals measure?

Head angular acceleration (head rotation)

25

What do the saccule and the utricle measure?

Head linear acceleration (Translation motion and Gravity)

26

What are the saccule and the utricle known as?

The Otolith organs/Otocysts

27

What does cochlea vibration and labyrinth acceleration/gravity do?

Deforms the hair cells

28

What does deformation of hair cells do?

Generates an electrochemical signal which is transmitted by nerve fibres to the vestibular nucleus

29

What does deformation of the stereocilia towards kinocilium cause?

Depolarization

30

In the semicircular canals, what is the Crista?

Sheet of cells where hair cells are clustered

31

What does the fluid displace when there is movement?

The capula

32

Where is the Crista?

In the Ampulla

33

What does the posterior canal share a plane with?

Contralateral anterior canal

34

What movement does the saccule measure?

Vertical/Sagittal plane

35

What movement does the utricle measure?

Horizontal plane

36

In the otolith organs, where do the hair cells lie?

In the macula

37

what divides the hair cells into two groups?

The striola

38

What are present on the otolith membrane?

Crystals of calcium carbonate called Otocania

39

What is the Vestibulo-ocular reflex?

Keeps the eyes still in space when the head moves

40

What is the Vestibulo-colic reflex?

Keeps head still in space on level plane when you walk

41

What is the Vestibular-spinal reflex?

Adjusts posture for rapid changes in position