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Flashcards in Patterns of Neurological Dysfunction Deck (16):
1

What are upper motor neuron issues?

Increased tone
Brisk reflexes
Pyramidal/corticospinal weaknesses e.g. weak extensors in arms and flexors in legs)

2

What are lower motor neuron issues?

Wasting
Fasciculations
Decreased tone
Decreased/absent reflexes
Flexor plantars

3

What are muscle disease issues?

Wasting (usually proximal)
Decreased tone
Decreased or absent tendon reflexes

4

What are neuromuscular junction issues?

Fatiguable weakness
Normal or decreased tone
Normal tendon reflexes
No sensory symptoms

5

What are functional weakness issues?

No wasting
Normal tone
Normal reflexes
Erratic power
non-anatomical loss

6

What does Stocking imply?

length dependant neuropathy

7

What does the sensory level imply?

A spinal cord lesion

8

What does Haemianaesthesia imply?

Contrlateral cerebral lesion, or with no other signs a non-organic disorder

9

What is a dissociated sensory loss?

Lost with spinothalamic but preserved dorsal column suggests hemicord damage

10

What are features of a cerebellar disorder?

Cerebellar gait - broad and unsteady
Intention tremor/ataxia
Dysdiadochokinesis
Nystagmus

11

What is Dysdiadochokinesis?

Clumsy fast alternating movements

12

What are Extrapyramidal symptoms?

Bradykinesia
Hypomimia
Hypophonia
Reduced arm swing, stooped posture, small steps, festination, turning en bloc
Impaired postural reflexes
Asymmetry in PD, symmetry in drug induced or atypical PD

13

What does the Frontal lobe do?

Generates novel strategies and has executive functions.
It enables self criticism and trying again

14

What problems present with an issue in the Temporal lobe?

Memory dysfunction
Agnosia
Language issues
Visual field defects
Auditory dysfunction
Limbic dysfunction
Temporal lobe epilepsy

15

What problems arise from a Frontal lobe issue?

Personality dysfunction
Paraparesis
Paratonia
Seizures
Incontinence
Visual field defects

16

What problems present with a Parietal lobe issue?

Visual field defect
Sensory dysfunction
Grestmann's syndrome
Dyspraxia
Inattention
Denial