Autonomic Nervous System Flashcards Preview

Physiology and Neuroscience > Autonomic Nervous System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Autonomic Nervous System Deck (29):
1

What system controls organs?

Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)

2

What are the two divisions of the ANS?

Sympathetic and Parasympathetic

3

What do the blood vessels control?

Nerves which determine blood pressure

4

Where does the sympathetic nervous system originate

Nerves coming out the spinal cord

5

Where do the parasympathetic nervous systems originate?

Nerves coming out of cranial (brain)

6

What is ganglion made of?

Swelling created by synapses

7

Where to ganglion cells congregate?

In a sympathetic chain, close to spinal cord

8

Where is there no parasympathetic nerves?

Kidneys

9

Describe parasympathetic activity

Causes a fall in heart rate- vessels relax (dilation)

10

Describe sympathetic activity

Causes a rise in heart rate- contraction makes diameter narrower making pressure go up

11

What causes blood pressure in terms of activity?

Cause by balance between sympathetic and parasympathetic vessels

12

What is the transmitter in all ANS processes?

Acetylcholine

13

What is the transmitter process for the Parasympathetic Nervous system?

Pre-ganglionic-> Long preganglionic fibre-> Postganglionic acetylcholine

14

Where does Acetylcholine act in the parasympathetic system?

Muscarinic receptor
Nictonic receptor

15

What is the transmitter process for the Sympathetic Nervous system?

Preganglionic fibre-> acetylcholine-> postganglionic fibre-> noradrenaline

16

Where does Acetylcholine act in the sympathetic system?

Adrenergic receptors (norepinephrine)

17

What does the noradrenaline then act upon in the sympathetic system?

Noradrenaline-> adrenal medula-> Adrenaline

18

What is the process for arterial pressure?

Detector (Baroreceptors- stretch receptors, signal brain) -> afferent pathways -> Medulla (coordinating centre)-> efferent pathways ->effector -> heart and vessels -> means arterial pressure

19

Where and what are baroreceptors?

Above aortic arch and detect stretch

20

How is adrenaline produced in sympathetic system?

Preganglionic fibres release acetylcholine and postganglionic fibres produces noradrenaline to produce adrenaline

21

How does sympathetic nervous system have control?

Innervation of small areteries and surrounding per-vascular adipose tissue (PVAT)

22

What effect does noradrenaline have when it's next to cells?

Affects diameter of the cell

23

What transmitters comprise the sympathetic triad?

NA (noradrenaline), ATP and NPY (neuropeptide Y)

24

What transmitters comprise the parasympathetic triad?

Ach (acetylcholine), NO and VIP

25

What importance do sensory nerves have in ANS?

Blood from sensory nerve produce vasodilation receptors (allows more bloodflow)

26

What three steps are involved in the Lewis Triple Response?

1. Redness along scratch
2. Spreading flare
3. Local swelling along the scratch

27

What is varicosity?

Release site, which inside has thousands of vesicles

28

What are the steps for vesicles in the active zone?

Docks
Priming
Fusion

29

What happens when a varicosity is depolarised by a nerve impulse?

Calcium cells open and varicosity causes exocytosis
Raise blood pressure- increase nonadrenaline
Calcium channel blocker- reduce blood pressure
Noradrenaline- taken back up and reused by nerve