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Physiology and Neuroscience > Brainstem > Flashcards

Flashcards in Brainstem Deck (47):
1

what does the brainstem connect?

forebrain and spinal cord

2

what are the neurones in the brainstem involved in?

in cardiovascular and respiratory control

3

what is important in the brainstem?

the cranial nerves coming out of it

4

what is the fourth ventricle?

where the spinal fluid is made and maintains the neural tissue alive

5

what are the brain structures derived from?

from 3 primary vesicles of the early neural tube early in development

6

when do the rostral and caudal ends of the neural tube close

days 21-24

7

what is differentiation?

developmental process by which structures become more complex and specialised

8

what does the midbrain differentiates into?

tectum and tegmentum

9

what does the rostral hindbrain differentiates into?

cerebellum and pons

10

what does the caudal hindbrain differentiates into?

medulla

11

what information does the axons in the midbrain carry?

information from forebrain to spinal cord and vice versa

12

in what functions are the neurones in the midbrain involved?

1. superior colliculus
2. inferior colliculus
3. cell groups involved in voluntary movements
4. periaqueductal gray

13

what is superior colliculus?

receives input from eye, controls eye movements

14

what is the inferior colliculus?

receives input from ear, relays auditory information to thalamus

15

what group of cells are involved in voluntary movements?

substantia nigra and red nucleus

16

what is periaqueductal grey?

important in control of somatic pain sensations

17

what axons does the pons contain?

axons carrying information from forebrain to spinal cord and vice versa

18

what does the pons relay?

relays information from cerebral cortex to cerebellum

19

why does the pons bulge out from ventral surface?

to accommodate circuitry

20

what are the neurones in the pons involved in?

1. reticular formation - sleep and wakefulness, body posture
2. pontine nuclei - relays info to cerebellum for motor control

21

where do axons that do not terminate in pons enter?

medullary pyramids

22

what are medullary pyramids?

corticospinal tract fibres involved in voluntary movements

23

what does the medulla receive?

sensory information: auditory, touch taste

24

what does the medulla relay?

relays touch and taste information to thalamus

25

what roles does the medulla have?

respiratory control, cardiovascular control and temperature control

26

what does the inferior olive do?

motor control

27

what does it mean that some cranial nerves are sensory?

they carry information from the environment to the nervous system
e.g. olfactory (sensation of smell); optic (sensation of vision)

28

what does it mean that some cranial nerves are motor?

they carry information out of the CNS, control the body
e.g. eye movements

29

what do cranial nerves that are sensory and motor control?

parasympathetic control of heart, lungs and abdominal organs; throat and neck movements, tongue movements

30

How many cranial nerves are there?

12

31

what are nuclei?

clusters of neurones

32

how does the brainstem have the cardiovascular control?

brainstem receives sensory information form heart
brainstem sends information to heart to regulate heart rate and blood pressure

33

what is the brainstem's respiratory control?

brainstem receives sensory information from lung and chest wall
brainstem receives information on blood pH
brainstem sends information to respiratory muscles to control breathing

34

what surrounds the brainstem?

major blood vessels that supply it

35

what is brainstem death?

when a person no longer has any activity in their brainstem - permanent loss of consciousness and the capacity to breathe

36

is it possible to keep someone alive after brainstem death?

yes - by keeping the person on ventilator which allows body and heart to be artificially oxygenated

37

is brainstem death permanent?

yes

38

why does brainstem death occur?

when blood and/or oxygen supply to the brain is stopped: cardiac arrest; heart attack; blood clot; head injury; brain tumour

39

how is brainstem confirmed?

if the patient fails to respond all of the clinical tests

40

why can limbs and upper torso move after brain stem death is diagnosed?

these movements are spinal reflexes generated by spinal cord

41

what is online's curse?

patients suffer form respiratory arrest during sleep
- can volitionally control breathing
- do not have automatic control breathing

42

how is online's curse acquired?

congenital or after injury or trauma to the brainstem

43

what is locked in syndrome?

patients have no voluntary motor control apart from the ability to perform eye movements

44

what causes the locked in syndrome?

a result of bilateral lesion in the ventral pons damaging the corticospinal and corticobulbar tracts

45

what indicates that the limbic system is intact in locked in syndrome?

emotions (crying, anxiety and laughing) modulate resting breathing pattern- limbic system is separate form volitional control

46

what is the brainstem consisted of?

midbrain, pons and medulla

47

what is the name given to the cluster of brainstem neurones that control regular breathing patterns?

Prebötzinger complex