Class Test 3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Class Test 3 Deck (92):
1

What causes Parkinson's Disease?

Loss of dopaminergic neurones in substantia nigria

2

DAVE

Dorsal (muscle --> spinal cord)
Afferent
Ventral
Efferent

3

SAME

Sensory
Afferent
Motor
Efferent

4

What is not present at chemical synapses?

Gap junctions

5

Difference between spatial and temporal summation

Spatial- multiple EPSPs
Temporal- same EPSPs

6

What do Tau proteins do?

Bind and stabilise cytoplasmic microtubules

7

What are in astrocytes cytoplasm?

GFAP
Glial Fillary Acid Proteins

8

What do astrocytes provide?

Structural support for neurons in the brain and aid in neuronal repair

9

What do glial cells do?

Hold brain together
Occupy spaces between neurons
Non-excitable cells

10

What is the process of ionophoresis?

Applying electrical current of the same polarity as the charged dye and hence expelled

11

What notion does arborisation of the neuron create?

Notion of how many connections a cell cn accomodate and to how many sites it sends its own processes

12

What do ganglion cells contain?

Around 400 nerve cells with distinctive shapes, sizes, positions and branching patterns

13

How are MRI scans formed?

From an oscillating magnetic field which causes protons in tissues to become excited and emit a radio frequency signal which is detected by a receiver

14

What composes grey matter and white matter?

Grey matter- nerve cell bodies
White matter- myelinated axonal processes and supporting glia

15

What is neuropil?

Where nerve cell bodies of grey matter are embedded

16

What makes up the spinal cord?

Centered H-shape core grey matter surrounded by white matter

17

What do vitementin positive cells contain?

Intermediate filament protein

18

What is used for labelling spinal cord sections?

Antibodies raised against several antigens

19

What is MAP2 (Microtubule Associated Protein 2) used to observe?

Soma and dendrites in the grey matter of the spinal cord

20

What is NP-NF (non-phosphorylated form of neurofilament protein) used to label?

Adult spinal cord
NP-NF used via fluorescently labelled NP-NF antibody
Only stains large cells in developing ventral horn

21

What is P-NF (phosphorylated form of neurofilament protein) used to label?

Immature spinal cord
Only labels axons

22

What is exocytosis?

Neurotransmitters released from axon terminal

23

What do inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmitters do?

Inhibitory- drives membrane potential away from critical firing level
Excitatory- reaches critical firing level and causes an action potential

24

What is a confocal laser scanning microscope used for?

Create 3D structures from obtained images

25

What synapses are predominantly found in mammals?

Chemical

26

What is a synapse?

Axon terminal from one neuron and dendrite/cell body from another neuron

27

Are there delays for chemical and electrical synapses?

Chemical- .5 ms between impulse at pre-synaptic terminal and detection of post-synaptic potential change
Electrical- no

28

How common are electrical synapses?

Not common in mammals
Few examples e.g. retina

29

How are tissues optically sectioned?

Immunocytochemistry combined with confocal microscopy

30

What does TEM (Transmission electron microscopy) or electrical recording from cells confirm?

Presence of an active synapse
Electron microscope- view synapse

31

What is lacking as you go down the spinal cord?

White matter relative to grey matter decreases
Sacral cord- loss of all white matter

32

What are Purkinje neurones?

Largest cells in the cerebral cortex

33

What are satellite cells?

Supportive cells which surround each neurone

34

What surrounds ganglions?

Fibrous connective tissue capsules

35

What is electronic spread?

Detriment and voltage faults

36

What affects conduction velocity?

Axon diameter (larger diameter, faster conduction)
Myelination (increases conduction)

37

What do Schwan cells form

Myelin

38

Saltatory mechanism

Relies on voltage-gated channels at the nodes
Fast conduction between nodes and nodes

39

Nodes

Gaps between myelin sheath

40

Electrically inexcitable?

Internode
Dendritic membrane
Soma of nerve cells

41

Electrically excitable?

Unmyelinated axon
Dense voltage-gated channels

42

How is information contained in AP?

Frequency and pattern of activity

43

What does NMJ release?

Acetylcholine

44

How are action potentials generated?

Summation

45

Where are inhibitory synapses on the axon terminals?

Axo-axonic synapses

46

What are IPSPs?

Makes postsynaptic neuron less likely to generate an action potential

47

Where are small molecule transmitters synthesised?

In axon terminals

48

Where are neuropeptides synthesised?

In the cell body

49

Where are autoreceptors?

Presynaptic membrane

50

What are modulators?

Type of neurotransmitters but aren't released in a synapse (e.g. released into tissue)

51

What makes up the spinothalamic pathway?

Grey matter
White matter
Ganglion
Nucleus
Tract
Pathway

52

Basal gaglia

Motor control and voluntary movements
Procedural memory
sub thalamic, caudate nucleus, thalamus
Initiation of movement

53

Cerebellum

Motor control and cooridination
Procedural memory

54

Pons

Sleep and wakefulness, body posture
Cortex - Spinal cord
Cortex- Cerebellum

55

Thalamus

Sensory inputs

56

Hippocampus

Memory
Episodic and learning

57

Hypothalamus

Autonomic functions

58

Neocortex

Semantic and declarative

59

Tectum

Auditory and Optic

60

Medulla

Sensory, touch, taste

61

Forebrain

Diencephalon (Thalamus, hypothalamus, basal ganglia)
Telencephalan (cortex)

62

Brain

Forebrain (D and T)
Brainstem (midbrain, pons, medulla)
Hindbrain (cerebellum, pons (rostral) , medulla (caudal))
Midbrain (tectum)

63

Internal capsule

Links cortex and brain

64

Paleocortex/Archicortex

Olfaction, emotions, memory

65

Association cortex

Complex cognitive functions
e.g. speech and language

66

Motor cortex

Motor activity

67

Frontal lobe

Pre-motor cortex (motor map)
Pre-frontal cortex (decision)
Broca's area

68

Lobes?

Frontal
Temporal
Occipital
Parietal

69

What are excitation of muscle spindles responsible for?

Stretch reflex

70

Control reflex vs protective reflex

Control= Closed loop
Protective= Open

71

What is protective reflex accompanied by?

Crossed extensor reflex

72

What do rods and cones differ in?

Connectivity
Sensitivity
Distribution

73

Bipolar cell

Link photoreceptors to ganglion cells

74

Horizontal cells

Mediate lateral responses

75

Cones connect

1 to 1 with bipolar and ganglion cells

76

Rods converge on

Ganglion cells

77

Roles of V1, V5, V4

V1- parcels out info
V5- motion analysis (akinetopsia)
V4- colour vision (achromotopsia)

78

Basal ganglia input and output

Input- Prefrontal cortex
Output- Pre-motor area

79

Lateral pathways

Corticospinal and rubrospinal
control of movement

80

Ventromedial pathways

Control of posture

81

What are collections of motoneurones in the ventral horn called?

Motonuclei

82

Iconic and echoic memory duration?

Iconic- 1/2 secs
Echoic- 2-3 secs

83

Properties of LTP?

Co-operativity (2 weak inputs same time)
Associativity (1 weak 1 strong)

84

AMPA receptors and NDMA receptors

AMPA- Fast reliable transmission
Permeable for Na
NDMA- Permeable for Ca

85

Brain blood supply

Dorsal aorta gives rise to internal carotid and vertebral arteries
Vertebral arteries join to form one single basilar artery
Basilar artery and internal carotid arteries form circle of willis

86

3 major cerebral arteries

Posterior cerebral
Left middle cerebral
Posterior cerebral

87

Pathways across BBB

Transcellular lipophillic pathway
Transport proteis
Receptor mediated endocytosis
Absorptive endocytosis

88

CVO examples

Pituitary gland
Median eminence
Area postrema
Preoptic recess
Paraphysis
Pineal gland
Endothelium choroid plexus

89

What groups of cells are involved in voluntary movements?

Substantia nigra and red nucleus

90

Ondine's curse

Think about breathing

91

Locked in syndrome?

Can't make voluntary movements only eyes

92

What is the name given to the cluster of brainstem neurones that control regular breathing patterns?

Prebotzinger complex