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Flashcards in Class Test 2 Deck (96):
1

Why is intrinsic factor needed in the body?

Absorption of vitamin B12

2

What does damage to stomach mucosa cause?

Ulceration

3

What are the 3 phases of gastric secretion

Cephalic
Gastric
Intestinal

4

Examples of gastric gland cells

Parietal
Chief
Mucosal

5

What mechanisms regulate gastric secretion

Neural and hormonal mechanisms

6

What is stomach mucosa composed of?

Simple columnar epithelium
Gastric pits

7

What type of events regulate gastric secretion

Stimulatory and inhibitory

8

What is the hormonal element in the intestinal phase

CCK and secretin

9

What is gastrin released by?

G cells of gastric glands

10

What does gastric lipase split?

Short-chain triglycerides into fatty acids and monoglycerides

11

What do hepatocytes produce?

Bile

12

How much bile is produced a day?

800-1000ml

13

How are gallstones formed?

If bile contains insufficient salt or excessive cholesterol

14

What causes release of pancreatic juice

Vagal stimulation

15

What is trypsinogen activated by?

Brush border enzymes

16

What does CCK induce

Enzyme rich pancreatic juice

17

What causes weak contractions of gallbladder?

During cephalic and gastric phases
Vagal nerve stimulation

18

What does pancreatic juice contain?

Electrolytes
Enzymes

19

What form are proteases secreted in?

Inactive and activated in duodenum

20

Pancreas exocrine functions

Acini secrete pancreatic juice
Zymogen contain digestive enzymes

21

Bile functions?

Lipid assimilation
Elimination
Provide optimum pH

22

What is the portal triad?

Portal vein
Hepatic artery
Bile duct

23

What does secretin release?

HCO3 rich pancreatic juice

24

What causes the release of CCK and secretin?

Chyme into duodenum

25

What does trypsin cause the release of?

Procarboxypeptidase and chymotrypsinogen

26

What two ways can steroid hormones be released?

Free binding proteins
Bound steroids

27

What factors determine blood concentration of hormones

Rate of secretion
Rate of inactivation and excretion

28

What are steroid hormones based

Cholesterol

29

What are the steps of hormone synthesis

Synthesis
Packaging
Storage
Secretion

30

What does receptor down-regulation reduce?

Target cell's responsiveness

31

Where is the pituitary gland?

Below the thalamus
Lies in hypophyseal fossa of the sella turcica of sphenoid bone

32

Six major anterior pituitary hormones?

GH
TSH
ACTH
FSH
LH
Prolactin

33

Six hypothalamic releasing factors?

GnRH
GHRH
SST
TRH
CRH
Dopamine

34

Two additional hypothalamic hormones of the posterior pituitary?

ADH
Oxytocin

35

What is GnRH for?

Stimulates LH and FSH

36

What is FSH and LH for in male reproduction system?

FSH -> Sertoli cells -> sperm
LH -> Leydig cells -> testosterone

37

What's SST (somatostatin) for?

Inhibits release GH

38

What is the luteal phase?

Granulosa cells + thecal cells= progesterone

39

What is the follicular phase?

Thecal cells-> androgens-> granulosa cells

40

What is GH (somatotropin) for?

Insulin like growth factor and metabolic effects

41

Difference between osteoclasts and osteoblasts

Osteoblasts- creating bone
Osteoclasts- breaking bone

42

What is the parathyroid hormone?

84 a.a peptide produced by chief cells

43

What do C cells produce?

Calcitonin (CT)

44

What does increased lusitropic effect lead to

Shorter diastolic relaxation time

45

What are the steps of T3 and T4 synthesis and secretion

Iodide trapping
Synthesis of thyroglobulin
Oxidation of iodide
Iodisation of tyrosine
Coupling of T1 and T2
Pinocytosis and digestion of colloid
Secretion of thyroid hormones
Transport in blood

46

Steps of calcitonin production

Increased plasma Ca2+
Calcitonin production increased
Decreased osteoclastic activity

47

Steps in parathyroid hormone

Fall in Ca2+
Parathyroid hormone production increased
PRH increased osteoclastic activity

48

What happens with increased chronotropic action?

Greater speed

49

What happens with increased inotropic action?

Greater force of contraction

50

How do liver and dietary lipoproteins enter adipocytes?

Through lipoprotein lipase action

51

What does the anterior pituitary hormone increase concentration of?

Glucose and fatty acids

52

What's insulin and glucagons role in the post-absorptive state?

Storage of nutrients
Maintenance of plasma nutrient concentrations

53

What are the physiological aspects of calorie buffering?

Short term osmotically active
Long term osmotically inert

54

What does the action of cortisol on plasma nutrients permit?

Rise in plasma glucose and fatty acids
Peripheral insulin antagonist

55

What do the 4 cell types in the pancreas secrete

Alpha- glucagon
Beta- insulin
Delta- somatostatin
F cells- pancreatic polypeptide

56

What does increased ventilation cause?

Increased alveolar PO2 (partial pressure), therefore oxygen consumption rises

57

What is VO2?

Measure of maximum volume of oxygen that an athlete can use

58

Why does HR take longer to recover after heavy exercise and faster lighter exercise?

Metabolic recovery takes longer
Repayment of O2 debt
HR remains higher for longer to get ride of lactate build up

59

What's mean arterial BP?

Diastolic BP + 1/3 pulse pressure

60

What does compliance mean?

Measure of the change in volume for a given change in pressure

61

What else is found when measuring the oxygen consumption

Total energy output during exercise

62

What does the pressure of the arterial system depend on?

Stroke volume
Arterial compliance

63

How is pressure in arteries maintained when the ventricle relaxes?

Elastic recoil

64

What does arterial compliance depend on?

Physical properties of wall
Value of mean arterial pressure

65

How do fats converted to fatty acids enter the cell?

Protonated

66

What does NKCC1 do?

Co-transporter
Powers Cl- entry into cell down sodium ion gradient

67

What is linked to the sodium ion gradient?

The time taken for solutes to be absorbed

68

What does hydrostatic pressure do?

Aid or prevent fluid absorption

69

What do tight junctions allow?

Permeability

70

What does CTFR allow?

Cl- out into the lumen

71

Fall in blood pressure in circulation

Renal sympathetic nerve discharge
Reduced renal blood flow and glomerular filtration
Reduced sodium chloride delivery
Increased renin release
Increased sodium chloride reabsorption

72

What coverts angiotensinogen from the liver to angiotensin I

Plasma renin

73

What was done in Gardener's experiment?

Inflatable catheter inserted into renal artery to stimulate reduced blood pressure
Inject max stimulatory dose of aldosterone

74

Functions of aldosterone?

Increase Na+/K+ activity in distal tubule
Increase sodium ion reabsorption

75

Aim of gardeners experiment

Maximise sodium reabsorption in distal convoluted tubule

76

What is the function of retention of sodium ion

Maintain extra cellular volume

77

Fall in venous blood volume

General sympathetic discharge
Constriction of afferent arteriolar
Reduced renal blood flow
Reduced glomerular filtration
Reduced sodium chloride presented to distal convoluted tubule
Conservation of sodium chloride

78

What does angiotensin I in lungs and kidneys do?

Concerts enzyme ACE in lung and renal endothelium

79

Functions of AT1 receptors?

Effect on smooth muscle of arteries
Stimulates ADH production
Produced aldosterone

80

What receptors receive decrease in volume of circulating blood

Baroreceptors
Angiotensin II

81

ANP (atrial natriuretic peptide) action

Reduced blood pressure
Inhibits ADH release
Inhibits renin release
Reduced sodium ion absorption

82

What are modern anatomical methods in neuroscience?

Tract-tracing
Immunocytochemistry
In situ hybridisation

83

What does in situ hybridisation detect?

mRNA sequences in neurones

84

What can light microscopic features determine?

6 layers of human cerebral cortex

85

What is immunocytochemistry?

Antibodies are used to detect molecules in CNS

86

What did electrical stimulation show about the brain?

Represented by maps
Homunculus

87

What are ribosomes responsible for?

Translation

88

How can neurons be classified?

Number of neuritites
Shape
Connections
Axons
Neurotransmitters

89

How can axons classify neurons?

Golgi I- long axons
Golgi II- local axons

90

Functions of various glia

Astrocytes- mechanical and metabolic
Oligodendrocytes- make myelin
Microglia- phagocyte

91

Angiotensin I converted to angiotensin II where?

Lungs

92

How to calculate alveolar ventilation?

VA= VE-VD
VA- alveolar ventilation
VE- pulmonary ventilation
VD- dead space ventilation

If you have tidal volume (VT) and respiratory rate (RR) VA can be calculated

VA= (VT x RR) - (VD x RR)

93

What does thirst arise from?

Increased plasma osmolality
Decreased blood volume (renin, angiotensin)

94

Decreased plasma osmolaity

Osmolality of blood increases with dehydration
Decreased osmolality= increase urine

95

Increase in ADH

Dehydration

96

In severe starvation what is the principle substrate for glucose synthesis?

Amino acids