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Flashcards in B cells and Antibodies Deck (100)
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1

T/F: there roughly 100 million kinds of B cells in the blood?

True; only about 30 of any one kind though.

2

These are Y shaped proteins that attach to antigens and help identify harmful non-self things for destruction

Antibodies

3

something that causes the immune system to create antibodies specifically targeting that something.

Antigen

4

Antigen that a given B cell's receptors recognize

Cognate Antigen

5

part of the antigen that the antibody recognizes and attaches

Epitope

6

part of the antibody that recognizes and attaches to the epitope

Paratope

7

Where are antibodies made?

In B cells

8

T/F: Antibodies have to be transcribed and translated by B cells like any other protein.

True

9

T/F: B cell DNA has much less variety than other cells?

False; B cell DNA has much, much more variety.

10

In genetic coding, three successive base pairs would be called what?

codon

11

In genetic coding, each three consecutive bases represent what?

one amino acid

12

In modular design, multiple copies of four gene segments code the antibody's what?

heavy chain.

13

What is the Fc Region?

a string of gene segments

14

T/F: the light chain has many more gene segments to choose from.

True

15

T/F: Junctional Diversity limits the B cell's ability to make different antibodies.

False; in additon to modular design, junctional diversity helps bring the B cell's ability to make up to about 100 million different antibodies.

16

What are attached to the surface of B cells?

antibodies

17

What are the antibodies on the surface of B cells called?

B cell receptors (BCRs)

18

T/F: All B cells eventually find their specific match.

False; most B cells never find their cognate antigen.

19

What are B cells that have never encountered their cognate antigen called?

naive or virgin B cells

20

B cells that have been activated (found their cognate antigen) are called what?

Experienced B cells

21

How many signals do B cells need to be activated?

Two

22

What are the signals needed for B cells to be activated?

Clustering of B cell receptors and Co-stimulatory signal

23

What are the two parts of the Co-stimulatory signal which helps to activate B cells?

T cell dependent and T cell independent (pattern recognition)

24

Where are complement receptors and where are they located?

Proteins on the membrane of B cells

25

What is the function of a B cell's complement receptors?

they bind to the the complement protein fragments which are bound to the antigen.

26

T/F: B cell's BCRs can bind to the antigen.

True

27

T/F: When BCR and complement receptors are brought together on an opsonized antigen, there is a massive increase in the number of BCRs that need to be clustered to signal to the nucleus.

False; this number decreases 100-fold

28

What is it called when the B cell is stimulated by the antigen and a helper T cell?

T cell dependent co-stimulation

29

Why do some antigens heavily cluster the BCRs?

they have repeating patterns of disaccharides

30

When some antigens have repeating patterns and heavily cluster the BCRs, what is this considered?

T cell independent co-stimulation