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1

How many dendritic cells can one helper T cell scan in an hour?

1000

2

If a helper T cell finds its cognate antigen, what binds the two cells together?

adhesion molecules (immunological synapse)

3

What co-receptor on the helper T cell attaches to the MHC II molecule on the dendritic cell? (during Helper T cell Activation)

CD4

4

What do CD40L proteins attach to on the dendritic cell in order to lengthen the life of the dendritic cell?

CD40 proteins

5

How long does complete activation of the helper T cells take?

about 4-10 hours

6

What do Activated T cells produce that is a positive feedback for division?

IL-2

7

T/F: Activated helper T cells proliferate about 10,000 new cells in the first week.

True

8

Do Naive T cells have IL-2 receptors on their surface?

No. this allows for the specific T cells needed to be produced by helper T cells

9

T/F:When a helper T cell proliferates and produces more new cells, the helper T cells being made are all the same.

True, they are all specific for the cognate antigen.

10

Besides for remaining in the blood/lymph providing help to B cells and CTLS, what other job do Helper T cells have?

leaving the blood to enter battle sites providing help for soldiers on the front line.

11

How do Helper T cells help other cells?

cytokines-the communication proteins for the immune system

12

What do TNF, IFN-gamma, IL-4, and IL-21 all have in common?

They are all cytokines

13

What are the 3 major subsets of cytokines?

Th1, Th2 and Th17

14

Dendritic cells recoginze patterns specific to certain what?

types of pathogens

15

TLR4 senses LPS which characteristic of what?

Gram-negative bacteria

16

TLR4 senses proteins made by what?

certain viruses

17

TLR3 recognizes what?

double-stranded RNA

18

TLR2 identifies proteins specific to what?

Gram-negative bacteria

19

T/F:Macrophages also recognize distinct patterns

True

20

T/F: Different pathogens elicit different cytokines from macrophages and other cells.

true

21

Cells from different areas of the body make different combinations of cytokines. What cells sense the specific cytokine response?

Dendritic cells

22

T/F: Dendritic cells will display the same co-stimulatory molecules on their surface no matter what type of invader they encounter.

False; dendritic cell will display different co-stimulatory molecules on their surface depending on what type of invader it has encountered.

23

When are Th1 helper T cells used?

Viral or bacterial attack

24

Th1 helper cells respond with classical cytokines. What are classical cytokines?

TNF, IFN-gamma, and IL-2

25

T/F: one goal of Th1 Helper T cells releasing classical cytokines is deactivate infected macrophages and natural killer cells.

False; the goal is to activate these cells

26

What keeps the macrophages active?

IFN-gamma

27

T/F: one goal of Th1 Helper T cells releasing classical cytokines is to provide help to B cells for antibody production.

True

28

What tells B cells to make IgG3?

IFN-gamma

29

T/F: one goal of Th1 Helper T cells releasing classical cytokines is for IL-2 to recharge Macrophages.

False; the goal is for IL-2 to recharge natural killer cells

30

T/F: one goal of Th1 Helper T cells releasing classical cytokines is for IL-2 to stimulate proliferation of CTLs, NK cells and Th1 cells

True