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Flashcards in Innate Immune System 2 Deck (102)
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1

How long has the innate immune system been around?

~500 million years

2

What are the professional phagocytes?

macrophages and neutrophils

3

Complement proteins, professional phagocytes, natural killer cells and dendritic cells make up what?

The innate immune system

4

What part of the Innate Immune system is also associated with the adaptive immune system?

Dendritic Cells

5

What is known as the "poor man's antibodies?"

Complement system

6

The complement system acts as chemical signals to attract what?

phagocytes

7

What kind of complexes "poke holes in bad guys?"

membrane attack complexes (MACs)

8

For the roughly twenty proteins associated with the complement system, what is the primary source that makes the proteins?

Liver

9

T/F: Proteins are highly concentrated in blood and tissues.

True

10

What are the three pathways of the complement system that require activation?

Alternative, Lectin, and Classical Pathways

11

During which pathway of the complement system are complement proteins "spontaneously" activating and attaching to surfaces.

Alternate Pathway

12

T/F: antibodies are needed for the alternate pathway of the complement system

False; they are not needed.

13

What are the two parts that C3 will spontaneously split into as part of the alternate pathway?

C3a and C3b

14

T/F: C3a will either be neutralized by water within 60 microseconds or bind to a pathogen's surface.

False; these are the possibilities for C3b

15

What will C3b bind to in the alternative pathway?

amino or hydroxyl groups

16

What is the most abundant complement protein in the Alternative Pathway?

C3

17

T/F: C3bBb causes other C3 complement proteins to split, and the result is more C3bBb complement proteins coating the invader.

True

18

How does C3bBb interact with and activate C5?

by cutting it in half

19

New C5b combining with other complement proteins (C6, C7, C8, and C9) will result in what?

Membrane Attack Complex (MAC)

20

What do chemoattractants (C3a and C5a) attract?

macrophages and neutrophils

21

What do chemoattractants (C3a and C3b) activate?

macrophages and neutrophils

22

What are the three protection proteins?

MCP, DAF, and Protectin

23

What does MCP stand for?

membrane cofactor protein

24

What does MCP do to C3b?

turns C3b into an inactive form

25

What does DAF stand for?

decay accelerating factor

26

What does DAF do to convertase (C3bBb)?

accelerates the destruction of convertase

27

CD59, a cell surface protein is also known as what?

Protectin

28

How does Protectin protect cells?

removes MACs before they drill holes.

29

What is the default option of the alternate pathway?

Death: any surface not protected against binding by complement fragments will be targeted for destruction.

30

What does MBL stand for?

Mannose-binding lectin protein