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Flashcards in B. F. Skinner Deck (25):
1

Explain the Skinner box

1. A small box in which an animal is free to roam around in

2. Pressing bar/button frequently for reward

3. The rate of responding will increase

2

What is conditioning?

Refers to the strengthening of behaviors which results from reinforcement

3

Explain Type S conditioning

• S = stimulus
• Pavlovian concept of conditioning (pairing of conditioned and unconditioned stimulus)
• respondent behavior->response (the importance of drawing out a response from the organism)
• RESPONSES ARE CONTROLLED BY CONSEQUENCES

4

Explain Type R conditioning

• R = response
• emphasis end response
• operates on environment to produce an effect
• operant behavior

5

Reinforcement

• response strengthening - making response more likely to occur
• reinforcer - any stimulus/event following a response that leads to response strengthening
• reinforcers/rewards are defined based their effects - cannot be determined in advance
• reinforcers are situationally specific - teachers must thing on their feet

6

Explain positive reinforcement

• presenting a stimulus or adding something to a situation following a response
• increases the future likelihood of that response occurring in that situation

7

Explain negative reinforcement

• it is NOT bad
• to remove something undesirable
• increases the future likelihood that the response will occur in that situation

8

Immediacy of reinforcement

Responses can be established at the highest rate when reinforced

9

Extinction

• the decline of a response strength due to reinforcement
• isn't the same as forgetting
• forgetting is a true loss of conditioning over time

10

What is a primary reinforcer?

• need for survival
• food, water and shelter

11

What is a secondary reinforcer?

• conditioned through their association with primary reinforcers
• bottled/purified water

12

Explain the Premack Principle

• takes time - observing and teacher energy
• observing what people do when they have a chance
• ordered in terms or likelihood (most - least likely chosen option)
• able to be done in a smaller class
• order is not permanent - order may change

13

Explain punishment

• decreases the future likelihood of response/responding to a stimulus
• may involve withdrawing a positive reinforcer/presenting a negative reinforcer following a response
• suppressed a response but doesn't eliminate it
• punished response may return if threat of punishment is removed

14

Give the 4 alternatives to punishment

1. Change the discriminative stimuli for negative behavior

2. Allow the unwanted behavior to continue until the perpetrator becomes satiated

3. Ignore it

4. Use positive reinforcement

15

Reinforcement _____ in behavior

Increases

16

Punishment _____ in behavior

Decreases

17

Extinction ______ in behavior

Declines

18

Critiques on instructional applications in school

• students don't have want/motivation to do an assignment - do it to avoid punishment
• reinforcement at school is infrequent (no continuity)
• there isn't immediate feedback on tasks (limited time) - more time spent on corrective feedback
• teachers move onto next topic without fully mastering the previous one
• children should be taught individually to make sure they all understand

19

Programmed machines

• teaching machines
• students are given materials in small steps - minimum errors
• student answer correctly, move on
• student answer incorrectly, try again

20

Branching

• no progress without understanding
• if you fail, you repeat section that you failed
• if you passed, you continue the work

21

Computer Based Instructions (CBI)

• commands the students attention
• immediate feedback
• work can be personalized

22

Discrimination

Responding differently depending on stimulus or features of a situation

23

Generalization

Responding similarly depending on stimulus or features of a situation

24

Cognitive behavior modification

When learners verbalize their thoughts. Those thoughts function as a discriminative and reinforcing stimuli

25

Contingency contracts

An agreement between the teacher and student specifying what work the student will accomplish and the expected outcome