Cephamycins are a subclass of what group? They add coverage to what 4 bugs?
2nd gen ceph. 1. Bacteroides 2. Clostridium perfringens 3. N. Gonorrhoeae 4. Serratia
Can cephalosporins treat Listeria meningitides?
All cephalosporins are active against what gram neg rods? (3)
1. Proteus 2. E. Coli 3. Klebsiella
3rd gen ceph cover same as the 2nd gen plus what 4 gram neg rods?
1. Neisseria 2. Serratia 3. Citrobacter 4. Providencia
Primaxin is co/administered with what? why?
Cilastatin; inhibits the formation of a toxic metabolite
Cephalosporins are broader spectrum becuase they resist _______
____ prolongs the activity of cephs by blocking tubular secretion?
Name the 2 Cephamycins?
1. Cefoxitin 2. Cefotetan
Which 2 are the DOC for neonatal and childhood meningitis caused by H. FLu?
1. Ceftriaxone 2. Cefotaxine
What is the broadest spectrum of the Carbapenems? used to treat?
Primaxin; UTI's and RTI's
Name the 3 first generation cephalosporins?
1. Keflex 2. Cefazolin 3. Cefadroxil
2nd gen ceph. also treat UTI's for what 2 bugs?
1. E.coli 2. Klebsiella
What is the MOA of Carbapenems?
inhibit cell wall synthesis
Cephalosporins are DOC for what 2 dz? bug?
1. PNA 2. UTI Klebsiella pneumoniae
What type of SE's for ceph have in the body?
hypersensitivity causing rash and anaphylactic shock
Cephalosporins are inactivated by ______
How do Carbapenems structure look?
5 member ring the sulfa is outside of the A ring
Name the 6 most important 3rd gen ceph?
1. Ceftriaxone 2. Cefotaxime 3. Ceftazidime 4. Avycaz 5.Cefixime 6. Cefdinir
What is the only 3rd gen ceph that treats Bacteroid fragiles?
Cefotetan is CI in which 2 pt types?
1. pts on blood thinners 2. cant be taken with alcohol (Disulfiram-like reactions)
Which 3rd gen ceph is used to treat intra-abd infections, complicated UTI's, and pyelonephritis?
1st gen are useful PCN bugs plus what other 3?
1. proteus mirabilis 2. E. Coli 3. Klebsiella pneumoniae
Which 3rd gen ceph is first line against pseudomonas Aeruginosa?
What type bug is Aztreonam active against?
Aerobic gram neg bacilli (Pseudomonas and Serratia)
Which ceph. is the drug of choice for surgical prophy?
name 10 cephasporins that are given PO?
1. Cephalexin 2. Cefadroxil 3. Cefprozil 4. Cefuroxime axetil 5. Cefaclor 6. Cefdinir 7. Cefixime 8. Ceftibuten 9. cefpodoxime proxetil 10. cefditoren pivoxil
SE of Primaxin?
High doeses could cause sz.
Which Cephamycins is more active? Is the first line for what?
- Cefoxitin Peritonitis and diverticulitis (Bacteroides)
What is the best medication for Listeria meningitides?
Are cephalosporins active against MRSA?
Only 5th generation Teflaro
Do Meropenem, Doripenem, and Ertapenem need to be admin with Cilastatin?
Ceftriaxone is give ______ and first line for what 5 things
IV/IM 1. N. Gonorrhoeae 2. Meningitis due to H. flu 3. Chancroid due to H.Ducrey 4. PCN resistant Step. pneumo 5. typhoid fever from Salmonella
what is the only 5th gen ceph on the market?
2nd gen have increased activity aginst what 2? Good for what dz?
1. H. influenzae 2. M. Catarrhalis Upper and lower respirtory infections
What is the most widely rx'd 3rd gen ceph? what is it used for?
- Cefdinir - CAP, bronchitis, sinusitis
Which PCN is excreted by the bile?
4th gen ceph have increase resistance to ______
B-lactamases produced by Enterobacter **broadest!!!
All cephalosporins are active again what gram pos cocci?
1. staphylococci 2. sterptococci 3. pneumococci
which ceph is used during orthopedic surgery since it concentrates in the bone?
5th gen has increased active against which 4?
1. MRSA 2. VRSA 3. VISA 4. Enterococcus Faecalis
Which cephalosporin is the msot widely rx'd?
What is the structure like of the monobactam?
It has a B-lactam ring, but does not have an adjacent A-Ring. Therefore it is safe to use in pts with a PCN allergy
What is the most widely used 4th gen ceph? route?
What is the mechanism of Cephalosporins?
They inhibit cell wall synthesis
Which ceph is excreted by the bile and is safe to sue in pts with renal failure?
What is Aztreonam used to treat?
UTI's, PNA, and cystic fibrosis pts with respiratory symptoms
What are the 3rd generation cephalosporins used in treatment for?
1. gonorrhea 2. bacterial meningitis
4th gen ceph are first like for UTIs, PNA, bacteremia, and meningitis caused from ______ and for _____ infections
Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Intra abdominal
4 of the 3rd gen ceph that can cross the BBB and treat bacterial meningitis?
1. Ceftriaxone 2. Cefotaxime 3. Ceftazidime 4. Ceftizoxime
What is the only Monobactam on the market?
name the 4 2nd gen ceph?
1. Cefprozil 2. Cefuroxime Axetil 3. Cefuroxime 4. Cefaclor
What is the formation of cephalosporins?
They have 6 atoms in adjacent ring