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Flashcards in B Pages Deck (304):
1

Endothoracic fascia

lines the thorax between the intercostal muscles and the pleura; equivalent to the transversalis fascia of the abdomen

2

Superficial abdominal fascia

-Superficial fatty layer (Camper’s fascia)
- Deep membranous layer (Scarpa’s fascia)

3

- Deep membranous layer (Scarpa’s fascia)

continuous with the superficial fascia of the scrotum

4

Transversalis fascia

between the transversus abdominis muscle and the extraperitoneal fat; continuous with the pelvic fascia (epimysium of the iliacus muscle)

5

Renal fascia

details- separates the perirenal and pararenal layers of fat surrounding the kidney

6

Superficial fascia of the penis and scrotum

continuous with Scarpa’s fascia of the anterior abdominal wall and the superficial perineal fascia (Colle’s fascia)

7

Deep penile fascia (Buck’s fascia)

surrounds the corpus spongiosum and the corpora cavernosum

8

External spermatic fascia

continuous with the aponeurosis of the external oblique muscle

9

Cremasteric fascia

continuous with the internal oblique muscle

10

Internal spermatic fascia

continuous with the transversalis fascia

11

Abdominal fascia list

-Superficial abdominal fascia
-Transversalis fascia
-Renal fascia
-Superficial fascia of the penis and scrotum
-Deep penile fascia (Buck’s fascia)
-External spermatic fascia
-Cremasteric fascia
-Internal spermatic fascia

12

Pelivs and Perineum fascia list

-Superficial perineal fascia (Colle’s)
-Perineal membrane
-Obturator fascia
-Fascia of the pelvic diaphragm

13

Superficial perineal fascia (Colle’s)

continuous with the superficial fascia of the penis and scrotum; defines the superficial boundary of the superficial perineal space (pouch)

14

Perineal membrane

defines the deep boundary of the superficial perineal space (pouch) and the inferior (superficial) boundary of the deep perineal space (pouch)

15

Obturator fascia

covers the pelvic surface of the obturator internus muscle

16

Tendinous arch of the levator ani

attachment for the levator ani muscle

17

Fascia of the pelvic diaphragm

-Inferior fascia (anal fascia)
-Superior fascia

18

Inferior fascia (anal fascia)

covers the inferior surface of the levator ani and coccygeus muscles

19

Superior fascia

covers the superior surface of the levator ani and coccygeus muscles

20

Obturator fascia compenent

Tendinous arch of the levator ani

21

Thoracic cage joints

-Costovertebral (costocorporeal)
-Costotransverse
-Sternocostal

22

Sternocostal

synovial classification- plane

23

Costovertebral (costocorporeal)

synovial classification- plane

24

Costotransverse

synovial classification- plane

25

Pelvis joints

-Lumbosacral
-Sacroiliac
-Pubic symphysis

26

Lumbosacral

classification- symphysis

27

Sacroiliac

synovial classification- plane

28

Pubic symphysis

classification- symphysis

29

pelvic ligaments

-Inguinal (L. inguen, groin)
-Sacroiliac
-Sacrospinous
-Sacrotuberous

30

Inguinal (L. inguen, groin)

attachments- from anterior superior iliac spine to pubic tubercle
-Lacunar (L. lacus, pit, hollow or lake)
-Pectineal

31

Lacunar (L. lacus, pit, hollow or lake)

attachments- from medial end of inguinal ligament to medial end of pecten pubis

32

Pectineal

attachments- to pectin pubis

33

Sacroiliac

-Ventral
-Dorsal
-Interosseous

34

Dorsal Sacroiliac

attachments- from lateral sacral crest to posterior superior iliac spine

35

Interosseous Sacroiliac

attachments- between the articular surfaces

36

Sacrospinous

attachments- from ischial spine to lateral margin of sacrum

37

Sacrotuberous

attachments- from posterior iliac spine & lateral margin of sacrum to ischial tuberosity

38

Lymphatic Trunks

-Thoracic duct
-Right lymphatic duct

39

Right lymphatic duct

(drains nodes of the right thorax, right upper extremity, and right head and neck)

40

Thoracic duct

drains nodes of the right and left lower extremities, pelvis, abdomen, left thorax, left upper extremity, and left head and neck)

41

Lymph Nodes

-Breast
-Thoracic
-Abdominal and Pelvic

42

Breast nodes

Parasternal
Inguinal
Infraclavicular
Axillary
Apical axillary

43

Parasternal node

function- drain medial breast bilaterally

44

Inguinal node

function- may drain inferior breast

45

Infraclavicular node

function- may drain superior breast

46

Axillary node

function- predominant drainage of the breast

47

Apical axillary node

function- drain superior breast and other axillary nodes

48

Thoracic nodes

-Parietal
-Visceral

49

Thoracic parietal nodes

-Parasternal
-Intercostal
-Diaphragmatic
-Posterior mediastinal

50

Parasternal thoracic node

function- drain medial aspect of breast, upper abdominal wall, anterior pleura & part of liver

51

Intercostal thoracic node

function- drain lateral & posterior thoracic wall

52

Diaphragmatic thoracic node

function- drain liver, pleura & diaphragm

53

Posterior mediastinal thoracic node

function- drain pleura & esophagus

54

Visceral

-Pulmonary
-Bronchopulmonary
-Tracheobronchial (inferior & superior)
-Paratracheal

55

Pulmonary thoracic Visceral node

function- drain lung

56

Bronchopulmonary thoracic visceral node

function- drain pulmonary nodes & bronchi

57

Tracheobronchial (inferior & superior) thoracic visceral node

function- drain bronchopulmonary & posterior mediastinal nodes, trachea & heart

58

Paratracheal thoracic visceral node

function- drain tracheobronchial nodes

59

Abdominal and Pelvic

-Preaortic
-Lateral aortic (para-aortic)
-Retroaortic

60

Preaortic abdominal node

function- drain abdominal viscera supplied by the celiac, superior mesenteric and inferior mesenteric arteries

61

Lateral aortic (para-aortic) abdominal node function

function- drain the kidneys, suprarenal glands, ureter, posterior abdominal wall, testes, ovarys, uterine tubes, superior uterus & iliac nodes

62

Lateral aortic (para-aortic) abdominal components

-Common iliac
-External iliac
-Internal iliac

63

common iliac node function

function- drain internal and external iliac nodes

64

External iliac node function

function- drain inguinal nodes, abdominal wall, perineum and lower pelvic viscera

65

Internal iliac node function

function- drain pelvic viscera, perineum and gluteal region (skin drains to inguinal nodes)

66

Retroaortic abdominal node

function- drain the posterior abdominal wall

67

muscles of thorax

-Intercostal (external)
-Intercostal (internal & innermost)
-Transversus thoracis

68

Intercostal (external) muscle

attachments- from rib to rib oriented from superior-lateral to inferior-medial
actions- elevation of ribs
innervation- intercostal nerve
blood supply- anterior & posterior intercostal a.

69

Intercostal (internal & innermost) muscle

attachments- from rib to rib oriented superior-medial to inferior-lateral
actions- depression of ribs
innervation- intercostal nerve
blood supply- anterior & posterior intercostal a.

70

Transversus thoracis muscle

attachments- from posterior sternum to costal cartilages
actions- depress ribs
innervation- intercostal nerves
blood supply- internal thoracic & anterior intercostal a

71

Muscles of the abdomen

-Cremaster (G. kremaster, a suspender)
-Diaphragm
-External oblique
-Internal oblique
-Quadratus lumborum
-Rectus abdominis
-Transversus abdominis

72

Cremaster (G. kremaster, a suspender) muscle

attachment- from the medial edge of the internal oblique to spermatic cord
actions- elevation of testis
innervation- genitofemoral nerve
blood supply- cremasteric a.

73

Diaphragm

attachments- from xiphoid process, inner surface of the lower ribs & costal cartilages, medial & lateral arcuate ligaments & lumbar vertebrae via the crura to the central tendon
actions- inspiration (negative thoracic pressure by inferior displacement)
innervation- phrenic nerve
blood supply- musculophrenic, inferior phrenic, subcostal & lower posterior intercostal a.

74

External oblique

attachments- from lower 8 ribs to iliac crest & rectus sheath
actions- flexion & rotation of the trunk, & compression of the abdominal cavity
innervation- ventral rami T7-12
blood supply- superior epigastric, inferior epigastric, subcostal, lower posterior intercostal, lumbar, superficial circumflex iliac & deep circumflex iliac a.

75

Internal oblique

attachments- from thoracolumbar fascia to inguinal ligament, iliac crest & rectus sheath
actions- flexion & rotation of the trunk, & compression of the abdominal cavity
innervation- lower thoracic & L1 ventral rami
blood supply- superior epigastric, inferior epigastric, subcostal, lower posterior intercostal, lumbar, superficial circumflex iliac & deep circumflex iliac a.

76

Quadratus lumborum muscle

attachments- from 12th rib to iliolumbar ligament & iliac crest
actions- extension & lateral flexion of the trunk, and fixes 12th rib during respiration
innervation- ventral rami T12-L3
blood supply- subcostal, lumbar & iliolumbar a.

77

Rectus abdominis muscle

attachments- from xiphoid process & adjacent costal cartilages to pubic crest & tubercle
actions- flexion of trunk & compression of abdominal cavity
innervation- lower thoracic ventral rami
blood supply- superior epigastric, inferior epigastric

78

Transversus abdominis msucle

attachments- from lower six costal cartilages & thoracolumbar fascia to inguinal ligament, iliac crest & rectus sheath
actions- compression of the abdominal cavity
innervation- lower thoracic & L1 ventral rami
blood supply- superior epigastric, inferior epigastric, subcostal, lower posterior intercostal, lumbar, superficial circumflex iliac & deep circumflex iliac a.

79

Muscles of the pelvis

-Iliacus (details under Lower Extremity)
- Psoas (details under Lower Extremity)
- Piriformis (details under Lower Extremity) (L. pirum, pear)
- Obturator internus (details under Lower Extremity)
-Pelvic diaphragm

80

Coccygeus muscle

attachments- from ischial spine & sacrospinous ligament to coccyx
actions- supports & compresses posterior pelvic floor
innervation- ventral rami S4-5
blood supply- inferior gluteal, internal pudendal & inferior rectal a.

81

Levator ani muscle

attachments- from pubic symphysis, obturator fascia &; ischial spine to midline raphe &; anococcygeal ligament
actions- supports pelvic viscera, & compresses rectum & vagina
innervation- pudendal nerve (inferior rectal branches) &; S4
blood supply- inferior gluteal, internal pudendal, inferior rectal & inferior vesical a.

82

Muscles of the perineum

-Bulbospongiosus
-Ischiocavernosus
-Sphincter ani externus
-Sphincter urethrae
-Compressor urethrae
-Sphincter urethrovaginalis
-Deep transverse perineus
-Superficial transverse perineus

83

Bulbospongiosus

attachments- in male from median raphe & perineal body (central tendon) to surround bulb of penis; in female from the perineal body to surround vestibular bulb, vaginal orifice & clitoris
actions- in male empties urethra, maintains erection & contracts during ejaculation; in female constricts vaginal orifice & contributes to erection of clitoris
innervation- perineal branch of pudendal nerve
blood supply- internal pudendal a.

84

Ischiocavernosus

attachments- from ischial tuberosity & ramus to aponeurosis surrounding crus of penis or clitoris
actions- compresses crus during erection
innervation- perineal branch of pudendal nerve
blood supply- internal pudendal a.

85

Sphincter ani externus

attachments- from perineal body (central tendon) to anococcygeal raphe
actions- closes anal canal & fixes perineal body
innervation- inferior rectal branch of pudendal nerve
blood supply- internal pudendal a.

86

Sphincter urethrae

attachments- surrounds urethra
actions- compresses urethra
innervation- perineal branch of pudendal nerve
blood supply- internal pudendal a

87

Compressor urethrae

attachments- from the ischiopubic ramus to midline passing ventral to the urethra and inferior to the sphinchter urethrae (with a variable number of fibers fanning out medially to to reach the vagina in females and thus replacing the deep transverse perineus)
actions- compresses urethra
innervation- perineal branch of the pudendal nerve
blood supply- internal pudendal a.

88

Sphincter urethrovaginalis

attachments- from perineal body, surrounds vagina & urethra to meet contralateral muscle inferior to compressor urethrea
actions- compresses urethra & vagina
innervation- perineal branch of the pudendal nerve
blood supply- internal pudendal a.

89

Deep transverse perineus

attachments- from ischial tuberosity to perineal body (central tendon)
actions- fixes perineal body
innervation- perineal branch of pudendal nerve
blood supply- internal pudendal a.

90

Superficial transverse perineus

attachments- from ischial tuberosity to perineal body (central tendon)
actions- fixes perineal body
innervation- perineal branch of the pudendal nerve
blood supply- internal pudendal a.

91

Cervical plexus components (most branches in head and neck)

-Phrenic nerve

92

Phrenic nerve (C3-5)

function- sensory & postganglionic sympathetic innervation to pericardium & central tendon (& adjacent pleura & peritoneum); motor (lmn) & postganglionic sympatheic innervation to diaphragm

93

Thoracic spinal nerves

-Dorsal rami
-Ventral rami

94

Dorsal rami

-Medial branch
-Lateral branch

95

Medial branch of dorsal rami

function- sensory & postganglionic sympathetic innervation to back muscles & overlying skin; motor (lmn) innervation of back muscles

96

Lateral branch of dorsal rami

function- sensory & postganglionic sympathetic innervation to back muscles & overlying skin; motor (lmn) innervation of back muscles

97

Ventral rami

-Intercostal n. (T1-6)
-Intercostal n. (T7-11)
-Subcostal nerve (T12)

98

Intercostal n. (T1-6) of ventral rami function

function- sensory & postganglionic sympathetic innervation to intercostal muscles, parietal pleura & skin; motor (lmn) innervation of intercostal muscles

99

Intercostal n. (T1-6), of ventral rami, branches

-Lateral cutaneous branch
-Anterior cutaneous branch
-Collateral branch
-Intercostobrachial n. (T2 only)

100

Lateral cutaneous branch of Intercostal n. (t1-6)

function- sensory & postganglionic sympathetic innervation of skin overlying lateral aspect of intercostal space

101

Anterior cutaneous branch of Intercostal n. (t1-6)

function- sensory & postganglionic sympathetic innervation of skin overlying anterior aspect of intercostal space

102

Collateral branch of Intercostal n (t1-6)

function- redundant with remainder of nerve

103

Intercostobrachial n. (T2 only) of intercost n. (t1-6)

function- sensory & postganglionic sympathetic innervation of skin overlying proximal, medial aspect of arm

104

Intercostal n. (T7-11) of ventral rami

function- sensory & postganglionic sympathetic innervation to intercostal muscles, anterior abdominal muscles, peripheral diaphragm, parietal pleura & parietal peritoneum; motor (lmn) innervation of intercostal muscles and muscles of anterior abdominal wall

105

Intercostal n. (T7-11) of ventral rami components

-Lateral cutaneous branch
-Anterior cutaneous branch
-Collateral branch

106

Lateral cutaneous branch of intercostal n (t7-11)

function- sensory & postganglionic sympathetic innervation of skin overlying lateral aspect of intercostal space & adjacent anterior abdominal wall

107

Anterior cutaneous branch of intercostal n (t7-11)

function- sensory & postganglionic sympathetic innervation of skin overlying rectus abdominis muscle

108

Collateral branch of intercostal n. (t7-11)

function- redundant with remainder of nerve

109

Subcostal nerve (T12) of the ventral rami

function- sensory & postganglionic sympathetic innervation to skin overlying lateral and anterior abdominal wall, parietal peritoneum & muscles of anterior abdominal wall; motor (lmn) innervation of muscles of anterior abdominal wall

110

Lumbar nerves

-Dorsal rami
-Ventral rami

111

Dorsal rami of lumbar nerve components

-Medial branch
-Lateral branch

112

Medial branch of the dorsal rami of the lumbar nerves

function- sensory & postganglionic sympathetic innervation to back muscles & overlying skin; motor (lmn) innervation of back muscles

113

Lateral branch of the dorsal rami of the lumbar nerves

function- sensory & postganglionic sympathetic innervation to back muscles & overlying skin; motor (lmn) innervation of back muscles

114

Ventral rami of the lumbar nerves components

-Iliohypogastric nerve (L1)
-Ilioinguinal nerve (L1)
-Genitofemoral nerve (L1-2)
-Lateral cutaneous nerve of the thigh
-Muscular branches

115

Iliohypogastric nerve (L1) of the ventral rami

function- sensory & postganglionic sympathetic innervation of skin overlying lower anterior abdominal wall; sensory, postganglionic sympathetic & motor (lmn) innervation of muscles of the anterior abdominal wall

116

Ilioinguinal nerve (L1) of the ventral rami

function- sensory & postganglionic sympathetic innervation of skin overlying proximomedial thigh, root of the penis & scrotum or mons pubis & labium majorum; sensory, postganglionic sympathetic & motor (lmn) innervation of muscles of the anterior abdominal wall

117

Genitofemoral nerve (L1-2) of the ventral rami components

-Genital branch
-Femoral branch

118

Genital branch of the Genitofemoral nerve (L1-2)

function- sensory & postganglionic sympathetic innervation of the skin overyling part of the labium majorum or scrotum; sensory, postganglionic sympathetic & motor (lmn) innervation of the cremaster muscle

119

Femoral branch of the Genitofemoral nerve (L1-2)

function- sensory & postganglioinc sympathetic innervation of skin overlying the femoral triangle

120

Lateral cutaneous nerve of the thigh of the ventral rami

function- sensory & postganglionic sympathetic innervation of the skin overlying the lateral aspect of the thigh

121

Muscular branches of the ventral rami

function- sensory, postganglionic sympathetic and motor (lmn) innervation of the psoas and quadratus lumborum muscles

122

Sacral nerves

-Dorsal rami
-Ventral rami

123

Ventral rami of sacral nerves components

-Posterior femoral cutaneous n.
-Pudendal n. (S2-4)

124

Posterior femoral cutaneous n. of the ventral rami of the sacral nerves components

-Gluteal branches
-Perineal branches

125

Perineal branches of the posterior femoral cutaneous n. of the ventral rami of the sacral nerves

function- sensory & postganglionic sympathetic innervation of skin overlying part of the posterior aspect of the perineum

126

Gluteal branches of the posterior femoral cutaneous n. of the ventral rami of the sacral nerves

function- sensory & postganglionic sympathetic innervation of skin overlying part of the gluteus maximus

127

Pudendal n. (S2-4) of the ventral rami of the sacral nerves components

-Inferior rectal n.
-Perineal n.
-Dorsal nerve of clitoris or penis

128

Inferior rectal n. of the Pudendal n (s2-4)

function- sensory & postganglionic sympathetic innervation of the skin overyling the anus; sensory, postganglionic sympathetic & motor (lmn) innervation of the external anal sphinchter

129

Perineal n. of the Pudendal n. (S2-4), branches

-Muscular branches
-Posterior labial or scrotal branches

130

Muscular branches of the Perineal n. of the Pudendal n. (S2-4)

function- sensory, postganglionic sympathetic & preganglionic parasympathetic innervation of the corpus spongiosum or bulb of the vestibule; sensory & postganglionic sympathetic innervation of the spongy urethra; sensory, postganglionic sympathetic & motor (lmn) innervation of the perineal muscles

131

Posterior labial or scrotal branches of the Perineal n. of the Pudendal N. (S2-4)

function- sensory & postganglionic sympathetic innervation of the skin overyling the labia majora & minora, lower vagina & urethra or scrotum

132

Dorsal nerve of clitoris or penis of the Pudendal n.

function- sensory & postganglionic sympathetic innervation of the skin overyling penis or clitoris; sensory, postganglionic sympathetic & preganglionic parasympathetic innervation to the corpus cavernosum

133

Sympathetic trunks

-Rami communicans
-Medial sympathetic nerves
-Prevertebral Ganglia
-Plexuses (L. a braid)

134

Rami communicans of the sympathetic trunks, components

-White (T1-L2)
-Gray (C1-S5)

135

White (T1-L2) of the Rami communicans of the sympathetic trunks

function- carry preganglionic sympathetic axons to the sympathetic chain (paravertebral ganglia), prevertebral ganglia (celiac, superior mesenteric,…), and sensory axons from the viscera to the spinal cord

136

Gray (C1-S5) of the rami communicans of the sympathetic trunks

function- carry postganglionic sympathetic axons from the sympathetic chain to the spinal nerves for distribution through the dorsal and ventral rami

137

Medial sympathetic nerves of the sympathetic trunks, components

-Cardiopulmonary splanchnic nerves
-Upper thoracic splanchnic nerves (T1-5)
-Lower thoracic splanchnic nerves (T5-12)
-Lumbar splanchnic nerves (L1-5)
-Sacral splanchnic nerves (S1-5)

138

Cardiopulmonary splanchnic nerves of the medial sympathetic nerves of the sympathetic trunks

function- carry sensory and postganglionic sympathetic axons passing from the cervical and upper thoracic sympathetic ganglia to the cardiac and pulmonary plexuses

139

Upper thoracic splanchnic nerves (T1-5) of the medial sympathetic nerves of the sympathetic trunks

function- carry sensory and postganglionic sympathetic axons passing from the upper thoracic sympathetic chain to the aortic plexus

140

Lower thoracic splanchnic nerves (T5-12) of the medial sympathetic nerves of the sympathetic trunks, components

-Greater splanchnic nerve (T5-9) (G. splanchnon, viscus)
-Lesser splanchnic nerve (T10-11)
-Least splanchnic nerve (T12)

141

Greater splanchnic nerve (T5-9) (G. splanchnon, viscus) of the lower thoracic splanchnic nerves (T5-12) of the medial sympathetic nerves of the sympathetic trunks

function- carries preganglionic sympathetic axons to the celiac ganglion and sensory axons from the viscera supplied by the celiac artery

142

Lesser splanchnic nerve (T10-11) of the lower thoracic splanchnic nerves (T5-12) of the medial sympathetic nerves of the sympathetic trunks

function- carries preganglionic sympathetic axons to the superior mesenteric ganglion and sensory axons from the viscera supplied by the superior mesenteric artery

143

Least splanchnic nerve (T12) of the lower thoracic splanchnic nerves (t5-12) of the medial sympathetic nerves of the sympathetic trunks

function- carries preganglionic sympathetic axons to the aorticorenal ganglion and sensory axons from the viscera supplied by the renal, suprarenal and gonadal arteries

144

Lumbar splanchnic nerves (L1-5) of the medial sympathetic nerves of the sympathetic trunks

function- carries preganglionic sympathetic axons to the inferior mesenteric ganglion and scattered ganglia in the hypogastric plexus, and sensory axons from the viscera supplied by the inferior mesenteric and internal iliac arteries

145

Sacral splanchnic nerves (S1-5) of the medial sympathetic nerves of the sympathetic trunks

function- carries preganglionic sympathetic axons to scattered ganglia in the hypogastric plexus, and sensory axons from the viscera supplied by the inferior mesenteric and internal iliac arteries

146

Prevertebral Ganglia of the sympathetic trunks, components

-Celiac
-Superior mesenteric
-Aorticorenal
-Inferior mesenteric

147

Celiac of the prevertebral ganglia of the sympathetic trunks

function- houses postganglionic sympathetic neuronal cell bodies innervating viscera supplied by branches of the celiac artery

148

Superior mesenteric of the prevertebral ganglia of the sympathetic trunks

function- houses postganglionic sympathetic neuronal cell bodies innervating viscera supplied by branches of the superior mesenteric artery

149

Aorticorenal of the prevertebral ganglia of the sympathetic trunks

function- houses postganglionic sympathetic neuronal cell bodies innervating viscera supplied by branches of the renal, suprarenal and gonadal arteries

150

Inferior mesenteric of the prevertebral ganglia of the sympathetic trunks

function- houses postganglionic sympathetic neuronal cell bodies innervating viscera supplied by branches of the inferior mesenteric artery

151

Plexuses (L. a braid) of the sympathetic trunks, components

- Cardiac
-Pulmonary
-Aortic
-Celiac
-Superior mesenteric
-Aorticorenal
-Inferior mesenteric
-Hypogastric

152

Cardiac of the Plexuses (L. a braid) of the sympathetic trunks

function- carries sensory, postganglionic sympathetic (cardiopulmonary splanchnic nerves) and preganglionic parasympathetic (vagal) axons innervating the heart and coronary arteries

153

Pulmonary of the plexuses (L. a braid) of the sympathetic trunks

function- carries sensory, postganglionic sympathetic (cardiopulmonary splanchnic nerves) and preganglionic parasympathetic (vagal) axons to the pulmonary and bronchial arteries, trachea and bronchi

154

Aortic of the plexuses (L. a braid) of the sympathetic trunks

function- carries sensory and postganglionic sympathetic axons (upper thoracic splanchnic nerves) to the thoracic aorta and its branches

155

Celiac of the plexuses (L. a braid) of the sympathetic trunks

function- carrries sensory, preganglionic sympathetic (greater splanchnic nerves), postganglionic sympathetic (from the celiac ganglion) and preganglionic parasympathetic (vagal) axons to the viscera supplied by the celiac artery

156

Superior mesenteric of the plexuses (L. a braid) of the sympathetic trunks

function- carries sensory, preganglionic sympathetic (lesser splanchnic nerves), postganglionic sympathetic (from the superior mesenteric ganglion), and preganglionic parasympathetic axons (vagus) to the viscera supplied by the superior mesenteric artery

157

Aorticorenal of the plexuses (L. a braid) of the sympathetic trunks

function- carries sensory, preganglionic sympathetic (least splanchnic nerves), postganglionic sympathetic (from the aorticorenal ganglion), and preganglionic parasympathetic axons (vagus) to the viscera supplied by the renal, suprarenal and gonadal arteries

158

Inferior mesenteric of the plexuses (L. a braid) of the sympathetic trunks

function- carries sensory, preganglionic sympathetic (lumbar splanchnic nerves), postganglionic sympathetic (from the inferior mesenteric ganglion), and preganglionic parasympathetic axons (pelvic splanchnic) to the viscera supplied by the inferior mesenteric artery

159

Hypogastric of the plexuses (L. a braid) of the sympathetic trunks

function- carries sensory, preganglionic sympathetic (lumbar splanchnic nerves), postganglionic sympathetic (from scattered ganglia), and preganglionic parasympathetic axons (pelvic splanchnic nerves) to the viscera supplied by the internal iliac artery

160

Parasympathetic nerves

-Vagus nerve (L. wandering)
-Pelvic splanchnic nerves (S2-4)
-Pudendal nerve

161

Vagus nerve (L. wandering) of the parasympathetic trunks, components

-Left recurrent laryngeal n.
-Vagal trunks

162

Vagus nerve (L. wandering) function

function- carries preganglionic parasympathetic axons innervating thoracic and abdominal viscera to the level of the left colic flexure, and sensory axons innervating the same viscera

163

Vagal trunks of vagus nerve, function

function- carries preganglionic parasympathetic axons innervating abdominal viscera to the level of the left colic flexure, and sensory axons innervating the same viscera

164

Pelvic splanchnic nerves (S2-4) of parasympathetic trunk

function- carry sensory and preganglionic parasympathetic axons innervating the descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum, bladder, uterus and erectile tissues

165

Pudendal nerve of parasympathetic trunk

function- carries preganglionic parasympathetic axons to the corpus spongiosum (bulb of the vestibule) and corpora cavernosa (other pudendal functions are listed above)

166

Veins of the trunk

-Superior vena cava
- Cardiac
-Pulmonary
-Inferior vena cava

167

Superior vena cava components

-Brachiocephalic
-Azygos (arch) (G. without a yoke, unpaired)

168

Brachiocephalic of superior vena cava, components

-Subclavian v.
-Internal jugular v.
-Vertebral v.
-1st intercostal v.
-Internal thoracic v.
-Inferior thyroid v.
-Left superior intercostal v.
-Pericardiacophrenic v.

169

Vertebral v. of Brachiocephalic of the superior vena cava, components

External vertebral venous plexus

170

External vertebral venous plexus of the vertebral v. of the brachiocephalic of the superior vena cava, function

Internal vertebral venous plexus (radicular veins [L. root])

171

Azygos (arch) (G. without a yoke, unpaired) of the superior vena cava

-Posterior intercostal veins
-Right superior intercostal v.
-Esophageal veins
-Hemiazygos v.
-Accessory hemiazygos v.
-Right ascending lumbar v.
-Right subcostal v.
-Right lumbar azygos v.

172

Hemiazygos v. of the Azygos (arch) (G. without a yoke, unpaired) of the superior vena cava

-Left ascending lumbar v.
-Left subcostal v.
-Left lumbar azygos v.
-L. posterior intercostals veins

173

Left ascending lumbar v. of the Hemiazygos v. of the Azygos (arch) (G. without a yoke, unpaired) of the superior vena cava

-Left lumbar v.

174

Right ascending lumbar v. of the Hemiazygos v. of the Azygos (arch) (G. without a yoke, unpaired) of the superior vena cava

Right lumbar v.

175

Cardiac veins

-Coronary sinus (starts where the posterior vein of the left ventricle drains into the great cardiac vein)
-Anterior cardiac veins

176

Coronary sinus (starts where the posterior vein of the left ventricle drains into the great cardiac vein) of the cardiac veins, components

-Great cardiac v.
-Posterior vein of the left ventricle
-Middle cardiac v.
-Small cardiac v.

177

Pulmonary vein components

-Inferior left
-Superior left
-Inferior right
-Superior right

178

Inferior vena cava components

-Common iliac v.
-Renal v.
-Right inferior phrenic v.
-Right suprarenal v.
-Right testicular (ovarian) v.
-Hepatic veins (right, middle & left)
-Lumbar veins

179

Common iliac v.

-External iliac v.
-Internal iliac vein

180

External iliac v. of the common iliac v. of the inferior vena cava

-Inferior epigastric v.
-Deep circumflex iliac v.
-Femoral vein .

181

Internal iliac vein of the common iliac v. of the inferior vena cava

-Superior gluteal v.
-Inferior gluteal v.
-Obturator v.
-Lateral sacral v.
-Internal pudendal v.
-Middle rectal v.
-Uterine v.
-Vesical v.

182

Internal pudendal v. of the internal iliac vein of the common iliac v. of the inferior vena cava, components

Inferior rectal v.

183

Inferior rectal v. of the internal pudendal v. of the internal iliac veing of the common iliac v. of the inferior vena cava, plexus

Rectal venous plexus

184

Middle rectal v. of the internal iliac vein of the common iliac v. of the inferior vena cava, plexus

Rectal venous plexus

185

Uterine v. of the internal iliac vein of the common iliac v. of the inferior vena cava, plexus

Uterine venous plexus (female)

186

Vesical v. of the internal iliac vein of the common iliac v. of the inferior vena cava, plexus

-Prostatic venous plexus (male)
-Vesical plexus

187

Prostatic venous plexus (male) of the Vesical v. of the internal iliac vein of the common iliac v. of the inferior vena cava

Deep dorsal vein of penis (male)

188

Vesical plexus of the Vesical v. of the internal iliac vein of the common iliac v. of the inferior vena cava

Deep dorsal vein of clitoris (female)

189

Renal v. of the inferior vena cava, components

-Segmental veins
-Left gonadal v.
-Left Suprarenal (Left Inferior phrenic) v.

190

Right testicular (ovarian) v. of the inferior vena cava, plexus

Pampiniform plexus (male) (L. pampinus, a tendril + forma, form)

191

Hepatic veins (right, middle & left) of the inferior vena cava, components

-Central veins (from sinusoids)
-Hepatic portal vein (via central and sinusoids)

192

Hepatic portal vein (via central and sinusoids) of the Hepatic veins (right, middle & left) of the inferior vena cava

-Superior mesenteric v.
-Splenic vein
-Left gastric v.
-Right gastric v.
-Superior pancreaticoduodental v.
-Para-umbilical v.
-Cystic v.

193

Superior mesenteric v. of the Hepatic portal vein (via central and sinusoids) of the Hepatic veins (right, middle & left) of the inferior vena cava, components

-Right gastro-epiploic v.
-Inferior pancreaticoduodenal v.
-Jejunal veins
-Ileal veins
-Ileocolic v.
-Right colic v.
-Middle colic v.

194

Splenic vein of the Hepatic portal vein (via central and sinusoids) of the Hepatic veins (right, middle & left) of the inferior vena cava, components

-Short gastric veins
-Left gastro-epiploic v.
-Pancreatic veins
-Inferior mesenteric v.

195

Inferior mesenteric v. of the Splenic vein of the Hepatic portal vein (via central and sinusoids) of the Hepatic veins (right, middle & left) of the inferior vena cava,

-Left colic v.
-Sigmoid veins
-Superior rectal v. (rectal venous plexus)

196

Viscera of the respiratory system

-Trachea
-Bronchi
-Lungs
-Pleura (G. a rib, the side)

197

Trachea viscera

carina [L. keel of boat]

198

Bronchi viscera

-right and left main
-lobar
-segmental

199

Lungs viscera

-Right
- Left

200

Right lung viscera

-Apex
-Lobes (upper, middle & lower)
-Fissures (oblique & horizontal)

201

left lung viscera

-apex
-Lobes (upper & lower)
-Oblique fissure
-Lingula (L. tongue)

202

Pleura (G. a rib, the side) viscera

-Visceral
-Parietal

203

Parietal of the pleura viscera

-Regions (cervical, costovertebral, diaphragmatic & mediastinal)
-Reflections (costodiaphragmatic, costomediastinal & costovertebral)
-Recesses (costodiaphragmatic & costomediastinal)
-Pulmonary ligament

204

Heart viscera regions

-Right atrium
-Left atrium
-Right ventricle
-Left ventricle
-Surface
-Pericardium

205

Right atrium viscera

-Crista terminalis (L. crest)
-Septum (fossa ovalis) (L. saeptum, a partition)
-Orificies
-Pectinate muscles

206

Orificies of the right atrium viscera, components

-atrioventricular
-coronary sinus
-inferior vena cava
-superior vena cava

207

Left atrium viscera

-Foramen ovale
-Orifices

208

Orifices of the left atrium viscera

-atrioventricular
-pulmonary veins

209

Right ventricle viscera

-A-V valve
-Conus arteriosus
-Orificies
-Pulmonary valve (cusp)
-Wall

210

A-V valve of the right ventricle viscera

-cusps
-chordae tendinae
-papillary muscles [L. a nipple])

211

Orificies of the right ventricle viscera

-Atrioventricular
-Pulmonary trunk

212

Wall of the right ventricle

-Trabeculae carnae [l. beam of flesh]
-Septomarginal trabecula

213

Left ventricle

-Aortic valve (cusps)
-Orificies
-A-V valve
-Interventricular septum
-Wall

214

Orificies of the left ventricle, viscera

-Aortic
-Atrioventricular

215

A-V valve of the left ventricle viscera

-Cusps
-Chordae tendinae
-Papillary muscles

216

Wall of the left ventricle viscera

Trabeculae carnae

217

Surface of the heart viscera

-Apex
-Auricles [L. ear]
-Coronary & interventricular sulci

218

Pericardium of the heart viscera

-Layers (fibrous, serous)
-Pericardial sinus

219

Pericardial sinus of the paricardium viscera

-Transverse
-Oblique

220

Mediastinum viscera

-Divisions
-Esophagus
-Thoracic duct
-Thymus

221

Divisions of the medaistinum viscera

-Superior
-Anterior
-Middle
-Posterior

222

Abdominal and Pelvic Viscera

-Esophagus
-Peritoneum (L. to stretch over)
-Stomach
-Small intestine
-Large intestine
-Pancreas
-Liver
-Gall bladder

223

Peritoneum (L. to stretch over) viscera

-Ligaments
-Folds
-Pouches
-Mesenteries
-Greater omentum

224

Ligaments of the peritoneium

-Coronary
-Falciform (L. falx, sickle shaped)
-Gastrophrenic
-Gastrosplenic
-Hepatic triangular
-Lesser omentum
-Hepatorenal
-Lienorenal
-Phrenicocolic
-Teres (L. round)

225

Falciform (L. falx, sickle shaped) ligament of the peritoneium, details

details- surrounds ligamentum teres & paraumbilical v.

226

Gastrophrenic ligament of the peritoneium, details

details- from abdominal esophagus to diaphragm

227

Gastrosplenic ligament of the peritoneium, details

details- surrounds short gastric vessels)

228

Lesser omentum ligament of the peritoneium, components

-Hepatoduodenal
-Hepatogastric
-Epiploic foramen

229

Hepatoduodenal of the lesser omentum ligament of the peritoneium, details

details- surrounds hepatic a., bile duct & portal v.

230

Hepatogastric of the lesser omentum ligament of the peritoneium, details

details- surrounds left gastric vessels

231

Epiploic foramen of the lesser omentum ligament of the peritoneium, details

details- communication between greater and lesser sacs

232

Hepatorenal ligament details

details- reflection of coronary ligament onto the right kidney

233

Lienorenal ligament details

details- surrounds splenic vessels

234

Phrenicocolic ligament details

details- from splenic flexure of colon to diaphragm

235

Teres (L. round) ligament details

details- fetal umbilical vein

236

Folds of the peritoneium

-Median umbilical
-Medial umbilical
-Lateral umbilical

237

Median umbilical fold details

details- surrounds urachus

238

Medial umbilical fold details

details- surrounds umbilical arteries

239

Lateral umbilical fold details

details- surrounds inferior epigastric vessels

240

Pouches of the peritoneium

-Rectouterine
-Rectovesical

241

Mesenteries of the peritoneium

-Mesentery proper
-Sigmoid mesocolon
-Transverse mesocolon

242

Mesentery proper of the peritoneum, details

details- surrounds branches of the superior mesenteric vessels

243

Sigmoid mesocolon of the peritoneum, details

details- surrounds branches of the inferior mesenteric vessels

244

Transverse mesocolon of the peritoneum, details

details- surrounds branches of the middle colic vessels

245

Stomach viscera

-Surface features
-Internal features

246

Internal features of the stomach viscera

-Folds
-Cardiac & pyloric [L. a gatekeeper] orifices,
-Pyloric sphinchter

247

Surface features of the stomach viscera

-Fundus [L. bottom]
-Body
-Greater & lesser curvatures
- Cardiac region
-Pylorus

248

Small intestine regions

-Duodenum
-Jejunum
-Ileum

249

Duodenum viscera divisions

-Free
-Descending
-Horizontal
-Ascending

250

Descending viscera of the duodenum

-Duodenal papillae (major & minor)

251

Jejunum viscera

Duodenojejunal flexture (junction)

252

Large intestine regions

-Surface features
-Cecum (L. blind)
-Ascending colon
-Transverse colon
-Descending colon
-Sigmoid colon
- Rectum
-Anus

253

Surface features of the large intestine viscera

-Teniae coli [G. tainia, band, tape]
-Haustra [L. to draw up, drink up from resemblance to buckets on a water wheel]
-Appendices epiploicae)

254

Cecum (L. blind) of the large intestine viscera

-Ileocecal junction
-Veriform [L. worm form] appendix

255

Ascending colon of the large intestine viscera

-Right colic flexure

256

Descending colon viscera

Left or splenic flexure

257

Rectum viscera

Ampulla [l. saccular dilation of a canal]

258

Anus viscera

-Columns
-Valves
-Sinuses

259

Pancreas viscera

-Parts
-Pancreatic duct

260

Parts of pancreatic viscera

-Head
-Neck
-Body
-Tail
-Uncinate [L. uncus, hook] process

261

Liver viscera regions

-Lobes
-Surface features
-Internal features

262

Lobes of liver viscera

-Right
-Left
-Quadrate
-Caudate

263

Surface features of liver viscera

-Posterior surface
-Inferior surface

264

Inferior surface of liver viscera features

-Impression for gall baldder
-Fissure for ligamentum teres
-Porta [L. gate] hepatis

265

Posterior surface of liver viscera features

-Caval groove
-Fissure for ligamentum venosum

266

internal features of liver viscera

-Hepatic veins
-Portal triads

267

Gall bladder divisions

-Fundus
- Body
-Neck

268

Ducts of gall bladder

-Common
-Cystic
-Hepatic

269

Urogenital Viscera

-Kidneys
-Ureter
-Urinary bladder
-Urethra

270

Kidneys Surface features

-Superior pole
-Inferior pole
-Hilum [L. a small bit or trifle]
-Capsule
-. Sinus

271

Kidneys Internal features

-Cortex [L. bark]
-Medulla [L. marrow, middle]
-Pelvis

272

Cortex [L. bark] of the kidneys

Columns

273

Medulla [L. marrow, middle] of the kidneys

Pyramids
-papillae

274

Pelvis of the kidneys

Major & minor calices [L. cup of a flower]

275

Retroperitoneal features of the kidneys

-Pararenal fat
-Perirenal fat
-Renal fascia

276

Urinary bladder Surface features

-Apex
-Fundus
-Neck
-Urachus

277

Urinary bladder Internal features

-Ureathral orifice
-Ureteric orifices
-Trigone

278

Male Urethra

-Prostatic segment
-Membranous segment
-Spongy segment

279

Prostatic segment of male urethra

-Prostatic sinus
-Colliculus semilunaris

280

Membranous segment of male urethra

Bulbourethral glands

281

Male Reproductive Viscera

-Scrotum
-Testis
-Epididymis
-Spermatic cord
-Ductus deferens
-Seminal [L. seed] vesicle
-Prostate
-Penis

282

Scrotum components

- Raphe
-Septum
-Dartos muscle

283

Testis components

-Tunica [L. coating] albuginea [L. white]
-Tunica vaginalis
-Efferent ductules

284

Epididymis components

-Head
-Body
-Tail

285

Ductus deferens components

Ampulla

286

Seminal [L. seed] vesicle components

Ejaculatory duct

287

Penis Parts (components :))

-Root
-Body
-Fascia

288

Root of penis components

-Crura [L. limb, leg]
-Bulb

289

Body of penis components

Corpus spongiosum
-Glans
-Corpora cavernosum

290

Fascia of penis components

-Fundiform ligament
-Suspensory ligament
-Superficial
-Deep
-Tunica albuginea

291

Female Reproductive Viscera

-Ovary
-Uterine tubes
-Uterus
-External genitilia
-Breast

292

Ovary ligaments

-Ovarian
- Suspensory

293

Peritoneal folds of ovary

-Mesovarium
-Mesosalpinx [G. salpinx, trumpet]
-Mesometrium [G. metra, uterus]

294

Mesovarium fold of ovary details

Details- surrounds ovarian & suspensory ligaments, & ovarian vessels

295

Mesosalpinx [G. salpinx, trumpet] fold of ovary details

Details- surrounds uterine tubes

296

Mesometrium [G. metra, uterus] fold of ovary details

Details- surrounds uterine vessels

297

Uterine tubes components

-Fimbria [L. fringe]
-Ampulla
-Infundibulum [L. a funnel]
-Isthmus [narrow passage connecting two larger cavities]

298

Uterus components

-Fundus
-Corpus
-Cervix [L. neck])

299

female External genitilia

-Mons [L. mountain] pubis
-Labia majora
-Labia minora
-Clitoris
-Vagina

300

Labia majora components

-Anterior commissure
-Posterior commissure
-Pudendal cleft

301

Labia minora components

-Frenulum [L. small bridle]
-Prepuce [L. foreskin])

302

Clitoris components

-Corpus
-Glans [L. acorn]
-Crus

303

Vagina components

-Bulb of the vestibule
-Fornices [L. vault, arch]
-Orifice
-Greater vestibular glands

304

Breast components

-Nipple
-Areola [L. area]
-Lactiferous ducts
-Suspensory ligaments