B2. 046 Prework 2 Overview of Diabetic Ketoacidosis Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in B2. 046 Prework 2 Overview of Diabetic Ketoacidosis Deck (17)
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1

ketosis

a normal metabolic process in which body produces ketone bodies in the liver for the utilization by peripheral tissues

2

ketonemia

abnormally high concentration of ketone bodies in the blood

3

ketonuria

abnormally large amount of ketone bodies in the urine

4

ketoacidosis

a serious complication of diabetes caused by over production of ketone bodies by the liver coupled with under utilization of ketone bodies by peripheral tissues

5

fatty acid oxidation

conversion of fatty acids to acetyl CoA by beta oxidation

6

ketogenesis

liver pathways that converts two molecules of acetyl CoA into B-hydroxybutyrate at the expense of one molecule of NADH

7

ketolysis

pathways in tissues other than the liver in which ketone bodies are oxidized to acetyl CoA and then to CO2 and H2O by the citric acid cycle

8

citric acid cycle

cyclic conversion of acetyl CoA into 2 molecules of CO2 with the production of 3 NADH, 1 FADH2, and 1 GTP

9

what are the ketone bodies?

acetoacetic acid
B-hydroxybutyric acid
acetone

10

why can acetone be detected on the breath of some individuals?

high concentrations of acetoacetate in the blood break down into acetone and CO2 which are exhaled

11

how is metabolic ketoacidosis prevented in normally functioning individuals?

ketone bodies produced from fatty acids by the liver are oxidized to CO2 and H2O in peripheral tissues

12

why can excretion of acetoacetate and B-hydroxybutyrate in the urine be detrimental?

excretion of these ketone bodies is accompanied by Na+ ions to maintain electrical neutrality
this exacerbates metabolic acidosis because it leaves H+ in the blood that cannot be removed by simply oxidizing the ketone bodies

13

what are the two primary causes of metabolic acidosis?

ketoacidosis
lactic acidosis

14

what is the anion gap?

detects high concentrations of organic acids in the blood
Na-(Cl+HCO3)

15

what is the rate limiting enzyme for fatty acid oxidation?

CPT1
totally active when insulin is absent

16

what is the negative allosteric effector of CPT1?

malonyl CoA

17

why is malonyl CoA reduced in a starved/DM1 state?

acetyl CoA carboxylase is inhibited by long chain acyl esters produced from FFAs and phosphorylated/deactivated by glucagon