B2.046 Prework 1 Overview of Hyperglycemia in Type 1 Diabetes Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in B2.046 Prework 1 Overview of Hyperglycemia in Type 1 Diabetes Deck (23)
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1

what is glucosuria?

sweet taste of urine
glucose being excreted in urine

2

what is SGLT2 and what is its function?

actively transports glucose from lumen into renal tubule cells by coupling with Na+ transport

3

what is the renal blood glucose threshold?

160-180 mg/dl

4

what are some examples of diabetic macro and microvascular complications?

atherosclerosis
nephropathy
retinopathy

5

distinguish between glycation and glycosylation

glycation- irreversible non enzymatic protein modifications
glycosylation- reversible, enzymatic protein modifications

6

what are 4 negative effects of chronic hyperglycemia

glycation
glycosylation
altered cellular redox potentials
oxidative stress and inflammation

7

what does Hb1Ac level exhibit?

the amount of Hb in the glycated state
more= more chronic hyperglycemia over last 6-8 weeks

8

how is glucose usually structured and what structure is susceptible to glycation?

usually in alpha and beta rings
fleetingly in a chain; in this form it can spontaneously glycate Hb

9

what is the primary hormonal basis for hyperglycemia in type 1 DM?

insulin is absent
glucagon, catechloamines, growth hormone, and glucocorticoids are present (counter regulatory hormones)

10

what is required for transport of glucose into skeletal muscle and adipose?

GLUT4
stimulated by insulin

11

what processes require insulin?

synthesis of glycogen by the liver and muscle
complete oxidation of glucose to CO2 by the heart, liver, and muscle
synthesis of fatty acids from glucose in the liver

12

what processes are negatively controlled by insulin?

glucose synthesis by the liver
lipolysis in the adipose
proteolysis in the muscle
opposition of counter regulatory hormones

13

glucokinase

stimulated by insulin in the liver

14

glycogen synthase

dephosphorylated/activated by insulin
phosphorylated/deactivated by glucagon

15

glycogen phosphorylase

phosphorylated/activated by glucagon
dephosphorylated/inactivated by insulin

16

what is anaplerosis?

net synthesis of citric acid cycle intermediates

17

what enzyme catalyzes anaplerosis?

pyruvate carboxylase
stimulated by high acetyl CoA levels and glucagon

18

what are important enzymes in gluconeogenesis?

pyruvate carboxylase
PEPCK
fructose 1,6 bisphosphatase
glucose 6-phosphatase

19

what are the steps of complete oxidation of glucose that are not functional without insulin?

glucose uptake
glycolysis
pyruvate dehydrogenase complex activation
citric acid cycle

20

what primary enzymes are required for synthesis of fatty acids by the liver?

glucokinase
pyruvate dehydrogenase complex
acetyl coA carboxylase
fatty acid synthase

21

how is acetyl coA carboxylase regulated?

down regulated and inhibited by phosphorylation when glucagon is released

22

what is lipolysis and what enzyme catalyzes it?

triacylglycerol hydrolysis: TAG + 3 H2O yields 3 FFAs + glycerol
catalyzed by hormone sensitive lipase (HSL)

23

what is responsible for muscle wasting in type 1 diabetes?

proteolytic mechanisms