Flashcards in B5 - Growth and repair Deck (23):
What factors affect height and mass of a person?
- their diet
- their genes
- the amount of growth hormones their body makes
- the amount of exercise they do
- how healthy they are
How can growth be measured?
Growth can be measured by finding out how much someones mass and height has increased.
What causes a higher life expectancy?
- modern treatments and cures for diseases
- fewer deaths from industrial diseases
- healthier diet and lifestyle
- better housing conditions
What does HGH stand for?
HGH stands for human growth hormone.
Where is HGH produced?
HGH is produced in the pituitary gland.
What does HGH do?
- prevents fat from being stored so it is used for energy and growth
- an indirect effect of stimulating the liver to produce another hormone
What does IGF - 1 do?
This hormone triggers an increase in cartilage.
What are mechanical replacements?
Mechanical replacements are not living, therefore they can be transplanted into the body.
Give an example of a mechanical replacement that is used outside of the body.
- kidney dialysis machine
- heart and lung machines
What are biological replacements?
Biological replacements are living body parts that can be given to other people.
What factors affect the design of mechanical replacements?
- the size (must be small enough to fit in the body)
- how heavy they are (must be light so they don't weigh down the body)
- battery powered so the patient can move around
- inert materials so the body does not react to them
What is a long donor/transplant list caused by?
- a shortage of donors
- tissues or blood not matching
- size of organs and age of donors/recipients
What are the ethical issues linked to body replacements?
- some families may find it difficult to accept that surgical procedures will be carried out on the dead body of the donor
- some patients may find it difficult to accept that someone's death has been necessary to provide a transplant
What is the legal age limit for someone to register on the donor list?
A person must be 18 years or older in order to donate their organs.
What is an opt-in system?
An opt-in system is where people have to declare that they want their organs to be donated.
What is an opt-out system?
An opt-out system is where people have to declare that they do not want to donate body parts.
Why are there issues linked to the opt-out system?
People say that it is against human rights and that it makes it difficult for people to opt-out.
What is the main risk with organ transplants/replacements?
The body's immune system reacts to the new tissue and rejects it.
Why is it a risk to take immuno-suppressive drugs after an organ replacement?
It leaves people more susceptible to other diseases/infections.
What does HLA stand for?
HLA stands for human leucocyte antigens.
What is a leucocyte?
A leucocyte is a type of red blood cell.
What does the presence of HLA depend on?
The presence of HLA depends on certain genes on chromosomes.