B5 - Growth and repair Flashcards Preview

Biology - Bethany DONE > B5 - Growth and repair > Flashcards

Flashcards in B5 - Growth and repair Deck (23):

What factors affect height and mass of a person?

- their diet
- their genes
- the amount of growth hormones their body makes
- the amount of exercise they do
- how healthy they are


How can growth be measured?

Growth can be measured by finding out how much someones mass and height has increased.


What causes a higher life expectancy?

- modern treatments and cures for diseases
- fewer deaths from industrial diseases
- healthier diet and lifestyle
- better housing conditions


What does HGH stand for?

HGH stands for human growth hormone.


Where is HGH produced?

HGH is produced in the pituitary gland.


What does HGH do?

- prevents fat from being stored so it is used for energy and growth
- an indirect effect of stimulating the liver to produce another hormone


What does IGF - 1 do?

This hormone triggers an increase in cartilage.


What are mechanical replacements?

Mechanical replacements are not living, therefore they can be transplanted into the body.


Give an example of a mechanical replacement that is used outside of the body.

- ventilators
- kidney dialysis machine
- heart and lung machines


What are biological replacements?

Biological replacements are living body parts that can be given to other people.


What factors affect the design of mechanical replacements?

- the size (must be small enough to fit in the body)
- how heavy they are (must be light so they don't weigh down the body)
- battery powered so the patient can move around
- inert materials so the body does not react to them


What is a long donor/transplant list caused by?

- a shortage of donors
- tissues or blood not matching
- size of organs and age of donors/recipients


What are the ethical issues linked to body replacements?

- some families may find it difficult to accept that surgical procedures will be carried out on the dead body of the donor
- some patients may find it difficult to accept that someone's death has been necessary to provide a transplant


What is the legal age limit for someone to register on the donor list?

A person must be 18 years or older in order to donate their organs.


What is an opt-in system?

An opt-in system is where people have to declare that they want their organs to be donated.


What is an opt-out system?

An opt-out system is where people have to declare that they do not want to donate body parts.


Why are there issues linked to the opt-out system?

People say that it is against human rights and that it makes it difficult for people to opt-out.


What is the main risk with organ transplants/replacements?

The body's immune system reacts to the new tissue and rejects it.


Why is it a risk to take immuno-suppressive drugs after an organ replacement?

It leaves people more susceptible to other diseases/infections.


What does HLA stand for?

HLA stands for human leucocyte antigens.


What is a leucocyte?

A leucocyte is a type of red blood cell.


What does the presence of HLA depend on?

The presence of HLA depends on certain genes on chromosomes.


Why are organ transplant success rates improving?

They are improving because of advances in medical techniques and technology.