Flashcards in B6 - Gene technology Deck (17):
What are chromosomes?
Chromosomes are thread like structures in the cell nucleus that carry out genetic information.
What is DNA?
DNA is a molecule found in all cell nuclei which determines how our bodies are made.
What is genetic engineering?
Genetic engineering is a way to change a genetic code.
How do scientists change a genetic code?
- they choose a section of a code called a gene
- take the chosen gene out of the organism and put it into another organism's DNA
- the gene then works in the new organism
What is a transgenic organism?
An organism that contains DNA from another organism.
Describe the stages of making transgenic sheep.
- identify the gene for the protein AAT in human DNA
- remove the gene from human DNA using an enzyme
- cut open DNA in bacterium using the same enzyme
- add the human gene to the bacterium's DNA using a different enzyme
- put the bacterium's DNA into a fertilised egg cell of a sheep
- place the fertilised egg into a female sheep so it can develop into a lamb.
Explain the difference between a ligase enzyme and a restriction enzyme.
A restriction enzyme is an enzyme used to cut DNA, a ligase enzyme is used to stick DNA together.
What can bacteria be genetically engineered to make?
- insulin for people with diabetes
- human growth hormone for people who do not make enough
What are plasmids?
Plasmids are circular DNA.
Why are plasmids called vectors?
Plasmids are called vectors because they carry the DNA.
What is assaying?
A technique used in genetic engineering to find out if bacteria have taken up the genes.
How do scientists find out whether the gene has stuck in the plasmid's DNA?
They add genes that make bacteria resistant to antibiotics. Then they are grown in a dish containing the antibiotic. If they grow then scientists know the gene has stuck.
What is a DNA fingerprint?
A DNA fingerprint is identification obtained by examining a persons unique sequence of DNA.
Why can people with diabetes not control their blood sugar levels?
They do not produce enough insulin.
Suggest one reason why someone may not want their DNA stored.
They may not want their DNA stored in case it is used for the wrong reasons.
What is electrophoresis?
The movement of charged particles in a fluid or gel under the influence of an electric field.