B7 Non-communicable Disease Flashcards Preview

AQA GCSE BIOLOGY PAPER 1 > B7 Non-communicable Disease > Flashcards

Flashcards in B7 Non-communicable Disease Deck (104)
Loading flashcards...
1

What sort of disease were only three of the top 10 killer diseases in the world in 2012? What were they?

Communicable
Pneumonia, HIV/AIDS, and diarrhoeal diseases

2

What are non-communicable diseases?

Not infectious and affect people as a result of their genetic makeup, lifestyle + factors in their environment

3

What do risk factors for disease include?

Genes
Lifestyle (smoking, lack of exercise, or overeating)
Substances present in environment/body (ionising radiation, uv light from sun, second-hand tobacco smoke)

4

What are examples of risk factors for a number of non-communicable disease include?

Diet, obesity, fitness levels, smoking, drinking alcohol, and exposure to carcinogens

5

What does a casual mechanism explain?

How one factor influences another through a biological process

6

What is the impact of non-communicable disease?

Cost nations huge sums of money- treating ill people
Global economy- maybe affect younger, working-age populations

7

Which type of disease affects more people?

Non-communicable

8

When does a tumour form?

When control of this sequence (cell division) is lost and the cells grow in an abnormal uncontrolled way

9

What do tumour cells not respond to?

The normal mechanisms that control the cell cycle

10

What do tumour cells do?

Divide rapidly w/ very little non-dividing time for growth in between each division

11

What does cell dividing rapidly result in?

Mass of abnormally growing cells called a tumour

12

Whats a tumour?

Mass of abnormally growing cells

13

Some tumours are caused by communicable diseases. Give an example

Bacteria agrobacterium cterium tumefaciens can cause crown galls in plants, and the human papilloma virus (HPV) can cause cervical cancer

14

What are benign tumours?

Growths of abnormal cells contained in one place

15

Where are benign tumours usually located?

Within a membrane

16

What do benign tumours not do?

Invade other parts of the body

17

What can benign tumours do?

Grow very large, very quickly

18

What can a benign tumour cause

Pressure or damage to a organ- life threatening

19

Give an example of a benign tumour being life-threatening?

Tumours on the brain- no extra space for them to grow into

20

What can malignant tumours do?

Spread around the body
Invade neighbouring healthy tissues

21

What is a malignant tumour often refereed to as?

Cancer aka rohan

22

What happens to a malignant tumour to form?

The initial tumour splits up, releasing small clumps of cells into the bloodstream or lymphatic system
They circulate and are carried to different parts of the body where they may lodge in another organ. Then, they continue their uncontrolled division and form secondary tumours

23

The initial _______ _____ up, releasing _______ _______ of _______ into the ________ or lymphatic system
They _______ and are ______ to different parts of the ____ where they may _____ in another ______. Then, they continue their _________ _________ and form _______ _______

i)tumour splits
ii)small clumps
iii)cells
iv)bloodstream
v)circulate
vi)carried
vii)body
viii)lodge
ix)organ
x)uncontrolled division
xi) secondary tumours

24

What can cancer cells do compared to normal cells?

Divide more rapidly than normal cells
Live longer

25

What does the growing malignant tumour completely disrupt?

Normal tissues
If left untreated- life threatening

26

Why may a malignant tumour be difficult to treat?

Tumour is spread around the body

27

What is an example of some cancers that have a clear genetic risk factor?

Early Breast
Ovarian cancer

28

What are most cancers a result of?

Mutations

29

What are mutations

Changes in the genetic material

30

What is something that can cause a mutation and trigger formation of tumours and why?

Chemicals such as asbestos and tar found in tobacco; they are carcinogens

31

What is another aspect that can interrupt the cell cycle and cause tumours to form?

Ionising radiation such as UV light and X-rays

32

Give an example where UV light has caused malignant tumours?

Melanomas appear when there is uncontrolled growth if pigment-forming cells in the skin

33

About 15% of human cancers are caused by what?

Virus infection

34

Give an example where a virus infection caused cancer

Cervical cancer is almost always the result of infection by HPV

35

What are scientists now using to help develop new cures and use the treatments they have as effectively as possible?

DNA analysis of tumour cells

36

What does programmed cell death do?

Normally gets rid of damaged or mutated cells but in tumours

37

What is radiotherapy?

Cancer cells are destroyed by targeted doses of radiation

38

What does radiotherapy do?

Stops mitosis in cancer cells

39

What is a drawback of radiotherapy

May damage healthy cells in the process

40

What is chemotherapy

Chemicals are used to either stop the cancer cells dividing or to make then ‘self destruct’

41

Chemotherapy drugs often affect what?

Other parts of the body, hair follicles ,skin cells, cells lining the stomach and blood cells as well as cancer cells

42

What does every cigarette smoked as they burn produce? And why?

Tobacco leaves burn- produce 4000 different chemicals that are inhaled in the throat, trachea and lungs
At least 150 are linked to disease

43

What happens to some of the chemicals as they are inhaled

Absorbed into the bloodstream to be carried around the body and the brain

44

What is nicotine?

Addictive but relatively harmless drug found in tobacco smoke

45

Why do people smoke?

Nicotine produces a sensation of calm, well-being, and ‘being able to cope’

46

Other ____ in tobacco ____ can cause ____ and often _____ ______ to the _____ ____

Chemicals
Smoke
Lasting
Fatal damage
Body cells

47

What poisonous gas is found in tobacco smoke

Carbon monoxide- poisonous gas

48

After smoking a cigarette, what happens in terms of carbon- monoxide?

10% of blood will be carrying carbon monoxide rather than oxygen- shortage of oxygen

49

Why might it be bad for a woman to smoke when preggers

Woman- carrying oxygen for developing fetus as well as herself
Fetus- may not have enough oxygen to grow properly

50

What can smoking while preggers lead to?

Premature births
Low birthweight babies
Still births

51

How many stillbirths are there in the UK each year

3500

52

Where is the cilia located?

Trachea and bronchi

53

What do the cilia in the trachea and bronchi do?

Move mucus, bacteria and dirt away from the lungs

54

What do some chemicals in tobacco smoke do to cilia?

Anaesthetised the cilia
Cilia- stops working- dirt+pathogens down into lungs- increased risk of infections
Mucus build up- coughing

55

What other toxic compounds are in tobacco smoke

Tar and carbon monoxide

56

What is tar

Sticky, BLACK, chemical that accumulates in the lungs

57

What does tar do to the lungs?

Turns them from pink to grey

58

What does tar make smokers more likely to develop?

Bronchitis- inflammation + infection of the bronchi

59

What can the build up if tar in the delicate lung tissue can lead to?

Break down in structure of the alveoli, causing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, reducing surface area to volume ratio of the lungs, leading to severe breathlessness and even death

60

What can the break down of alveoli lead to?

Causes chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

61

What does COPD do to the lungs?

Reduces surface area to volume ratio of the lungs, leading to severe breathlessness and eventually death

62

Tar is also a _______

Carcinogen

63

What does tar act on?

Delicate cells of the lungs

64

What does tar greatly increase the risk of?

Lung cancer developing and other cancers of the breathing system, throat, larynx and trachea

65

What does the chemicals in tobacco smoke also affect?

Heart and blood vessels

66

What does smoking do to blood vessels?

Narrows blood vessels in skin- ageing it

67

What does nicotine do to the heart

Makes it increase

68

What do other chemicals in tobacco smoke do?

Damage the lining of the arteries

69

The mixture of chemicals also increase what? 4 pt.

Blood pressure, coronary heart disease and clot formation; cardiovascular disease (heart attacks and strokes)

70

If you eat more food than you need...

The excess is stored as fat

71

What do you need fat for?

Cushioning internal organs
Act as an energy store

72

What can obesity lead to?

Serious health problems - high blood sugar levels, high blood pressure, heart disease

73

What does the food you eat do?

Transfers energy to your muscles as they work respiration

74

The amount of exercise affects what?

The amount of food you need

75

_____ tissue needs much more ____ to be transferred from food than body _____

Muscle
Energy
Fat

76

Between what percentage of your daily food intake is needed for the basic reactions to keep you alive

60 and 75%

77

About __% js needed to digest your food so only the final __-__% is affected by ______ activity

10%
15-30%
physical

78

What are some casual mechanisms that explain why exercise helps to keep you healthy in terms of muscle tissue?

More muscle tissue-increased metabolic rate-less likely to be overweight-reduces risk of arthritis, diabetes and high blood pressure
Fitter heart-better blood supply

79

What are some casual mechanisms that explain why exercise helps to keep you healthy in terms of regular exercise

Regular exercise-lower blood cholesterol levels- balance types of cholesterol- reduces fatty deposits on coronary arteries, lowering risk of heart disease

80

What can type 2 diabetes lead to?

Problems w/ circulation, kidney function and eyesight - may lead to death

81

Type 2 diabetes get more common when?

With age, some ppl have a genetic tendency go develop it

82

What happens in type 2 diabetes? I

Doesn’t make enough insulin to control blood sugar levels/ cells stop responding to insulin

83

What are risk factors for type 2 diabetes?

Genetics
Overweight or obese
Not doing much exercise

84

How can most people restore their normal blood glucose balance?

Balanced diet; controlled amounts of carbs, losing weight; regular exercise

85

Alcohol(ethanol) is poisonous. But why isn’t my dad dead then?

Liver can usually remove alcohol before permanent damage or death results

86

What happens after an alcoholic drink?

Ethanol- absorbed into the blood from the gut and passes easily into body tissues(including brain)

87

What does alcohol effect?

Nervous system, making thought processes, reflexes, and many reactions slower than normal

88

In small amounts, what does alcohol evoke?

Relaxed, cheerful and reduces inhibitions

89

What do large amounts of alcohol lead to?

Lack of self control
Lack of judgement
Unconsciousness
Coma
Death

90

Excessive drinking can lead to what?

Cirrhosis of the liver- disease- destroys liver tissue
Active tissue cells- replaced with scar tissues that cannot carry out vital functions

91

Alcohol is a what?

Carcinogen

92

What can long term alcohol use also cause?

Damage to brain
Brain- becomes soft and pulpy- normal brain structures are lost - can no longer function properly. This can cause death

93

What happens when a pregnant woman drinks alcohol?

Alcohol passes through placenta into the developing baby

94

What are the risks of drinking while preggers?

Miscarriage, stillbirths, premature births and low birthweight

95

Why may the brain and body of an unborn baby may be badly effected?

Developing liver cannot cope w the alcohol

96

What may the baby have when having FAS

Facial deformities
Problems with teeth, jaw, kidney, liver and heart
Learning+developmental problems

97

________ radiation in the form of different types of _______ ______ is a well-known carcinogen

Ionising
Electro-magnetic waves

98

Radioactive materials is a source of what?

Ionising radiation

99

What does radiation do? And what does this cause?

Penetrated cells and damages chromosomes, causing mutations in the DNA

100

The more exposed you are to ionising radiation, the more...

Likely it is that mutations will occur and cancer will develop

101

When is ionising radiation particularly dangerous?

When taken directly into your body

102

Where can radioactive materials be found?

soil, water and air (including radon gas in granite-rich areas such as cornwall and the Pennines)

103

Well-known sources of ionising radiation are?

UV light from the sun
Radioactive materials
Medical and dental X-rays
Accidents in nuclear power generation

104

What is a carcinogen?

a substance capable of causing cancer in living tissue.