Flashcards in B7 Non-communicable Disease Deck (104)
What sort of disease were only three of the top 10 killer diseases in the world in 2012? What were they?
Pneumonia, HIV/AIDS, and diarrhoeal diseases
What are non-communicable diseases?
Not infectious and affect people as a result of their genetic makeup, lifestyle + factors in their environment
What do risk factors for disease include?
Lifestyle (smoking, lack of exercise, or overeating)
Substances present in environment/body (ionising radiation, uv light from sun, second-hand tobacco smoke)
What are examples of risk factors for a number of non-communicable disease include?
Diet, obesity, fitness levels, smoking, drinking alcohol, and exposure to carcinogens
What does a casual mechanism explain?
How one factor influences another through a biological process
What is the impact of non-communicable disease?
Cost nations huge sums of money- treating ill people
Global economy- maybe affect younger, working-age populations
Which type of disease affects more people?
When does a tumour form?
When control of this sequence (cell division) is lost and the cells grow in an abnormal uncontrolled way
What do tumour cells not respond to?
The normal mechanisms that control the cell cycle
What do tumour cells do?
Divide rapidly w/ very little non-dividing time for growth in between each division
What does cell dividing rapidly result in?
Mass of abnormally growing cells called a tumour
Whats a tumour?
Mass of abnormally growing cells
Some tumours are caused by communicable diseases. Give an example
Bacteria agrobacterium cterium tumefaciens can cause crown galls in plants, and the human papilloma virus (HPV) can cause cervical cancer
What are benign tumours?
Growths of abnormal cells contained in one place
Where are benign tumours usually located?
Within a membrane
What do benign tumours not do?
Invade other parts of the body
What can benign tumours do?
Grow very large, very quickly
What can a benign tumour cause
Pressure or damage to a organ- life threatening
Give an example of a benign tumour being life-threatening?
Tumours on the brain- no extra space for them to grow into
What can malignant tumours do?
Spread around the body
Invade neighbouring healthy tissues
What is a malignant tumour often refereed to as?
Cancer aka rohan
What happens to a malignant tumour to form?
The initial tumour splits up, releasing small clumps of cells into the bloodstream or lymphatic system
They circulate and are carried to different parts of the body where they may lodge in another organ. Then, they continue their uncontrolled division and form secondary tumours
The initial _______ _____ up, releasing _______ _______ of _______ into the ________ or lymphatic system
They _______ and are ______ to different parts of the ____ where they may _____ in another ______. Then, they continue their _________ _________ and form _______ _______
xi) secondary tumours
What can cancer cells do compared to normal cells?
Divide more rapidly than normal cells
What does the growing malignant tumour completely disrupt?
If left untreated- life threatening
Why may a malignant tumour be difficult to treat?
Tumour is spread around the body
What is an example of some cancers that have a clear genetic risk factor?
What are most cancers a result of?
What are mutations
Changes in the genetic material
What is something that can cause a mutation and trigger formation of tumours and why?
Chemicals such as asbestos and tar found in tobacco; they are carcinogens
What is another aspect that can interrupt the cell cycle and cause tumours to form?
Ionising radiation such as UV light and X-rays
Give an example where UV light has caused malignant tumours?
Melanomas appear when there is uncontrolled growth if pigment-forming cells in the skin
About 15% of human cancers are caused by what?
Give an example where a virus infection caused cancer
Cervical cancer is almost always the result of infection by HPV
What are scientists now using to help develop new cures and use the treatments they have as effectively as possible?
DNA analysis of tumour cells
What does programmed cell death do?
Normally gets rid of damaged or mutated cells but in tumours
What is radiotherapy?
Cancer cells are destroyed by targeted doses of radiation
What does radiotherapy do?
Stops mitosis in cancer cells
What is a drawback of radiotherapy
May damage healthy cells in the process
What is chemotherapy
Chemicals are used to either stop the cancer cells dividing or to make then ‘self destruct’
Chemotherapy drugs often affect what?
Other parts of the body, hair follicles ,skin cells, cells lining the stomach and blood cells as well as cancer cells
What does every cigarette smoked as they burn produce? And why?
Tobacco leaves burn- produce 4000 different chemicals that are inhaled in the throat, trachea and lungs
At least 150 are linked to disease
What happens to some of the chemicals as they are inhaled
Absorbed into the bloodstream to be carried around the body and the brain
What is nicotine?
Addictive but relatively harmless drug found in tobacco smoke
Why do people smoke?
Nicotine produces a sensation of calm, well-being, and ‘being able to cope’
Other ____ in tobacco ____ can cause ____ and often _____ ______ to the _____ ____
What poisonous gas is found in tobacco smoke
Carbon monoxide- poisonous gas
After smoking a cigarette, what happens in terms of carbon- monoxide?
10% of blood will be carrying carbon monoxide rather than oxygen- shortage of oxygen
Why might it be bad for a woman to smoke when preggers
Woman- carrying oxygen for developing fetus as well as herself
Fetus- may not have enough oxygen to grow properly
What can smoking while preggers lead to?
Low birthweight babies
How many stillbirths are there in the UK each year
Where is the cilia located?
Trachea and bronchi
What do the cilia in the trachea and bronchi do?
Move mucus, bacteria and dirt away from the lungs
What do some chemicals in tobacco smoke do to cilia?
Anaesthetised the cilia
Cilia- stops working- dirt+pathogens down into lungs- increased risk of infections
Mucus build up- coughing
What other toxic compounds are in tobacco smoke
Tar and carbon monoxide
What is tar
Sticky, BLACK, chemical that accumulates in the lungs
What does tar do to the lungs?
Turns them from pink to grey
What does tar make smokers more likely to develop?
Bronchitis- inflammation + infection of the bronchi
What can the build up if tar in the delicate lung tissue can lead to?
Break down in structure of the alveoli, causing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, reducing surface area to volume ratio of the lungs, leading to severe breathlessness and even death
What can the break down of alveoli lead to?
Causes chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
What does COPD do to the lungs?
Reduces surface area to volume ratio of the lungs, leading to severe breathlessness and eventually death
Tar is also a _______
What does tar act on?
Delicate cells of the lungs
What does tar greatly increase the risk of?
Lung cancer developing and other cancers of the breathing system, throat, larynx and trachea
What does the chemicals in tobacco smoke also affect?
Heart and blood vessels
What does smoking do to blood vessels?
Narrows blood vessels in skin- ageing it
What does nicotine do to the heart
Makes it increase
What do other chemicals in tobacco smoke do?
Damage the lining of the arteries
The mixture of chemicals also increase what? 4 pt.
Blood pressure, coronary heart disease and clot formation; cardiovascular disease (heart attacks and strokes)
If you eat more food than you need...
The excess is stored as fat
What do you need fat for?
Cushioning internal organs
Act as an energy store
What can obesity lead to?
Serious health problems - high blood sugar levels, high blood pressure, heart disease
What does the food you eat do?
Transfers energy to your muscles as they work respiration
The amount of exercise affects what?
The amount of food you need
_____ tissue needs much more ____ to be transferred from food than body _____
Between what percentage of your daily food intake is needed for the basic reactions to keep you alive
60 and 75%
About __% js needed to digest your food so only the final __-__% is affected by ______ activity
What are some casual mechanisms that explain why exercise helps to keep you healthy in terms of muscle tissue?
More muscle tissue-increased metabolic rate-less likely to be overweight-reduces risk of arthritis, diabetes and high blood pressure
Fitter heart-better blood supply
What are some casual mechanisms that explain why exercise helps to keep you healthy in terms of regular exercise
Regular exercise-lower blood cholesterol levels- balance types of cholesterol- reduces fatty deposits on coronary arteries, lowering risk of heart disease
What can type 2 diabetes lead to?
Problems w/ circulation, kidney function and eyesight - may lead to death
Type 2 diabetes get more common when?
With age, some ppl have a genetic tendency go develop it
What happens in type 2 diabetes? I
Doesn’t make enough insulin to control blood sugar levels/ cells stop responding to insulin
What are risk factors for type 2 diabetes?
Overweight or obese
Not doing much exercise
How can most people restore their normal blood glucose balance?
Balanced diet; controlled amounts of carbs, losing weight; regular exercise
Alcohol(ethanol) is poisonous. But why isn’t my dad dead then?
Liver can usually remove alcohol before permanent damage or death results
What happens after an alcoholic drink?
Ethanol- absorbed into the blood from the gut and passes easily into body tissues(including brain)
What does alcohol effect?
Nervous system, making thought processes, reflexes, and many reactions slower than normal
In small amounts, what does alcohol evoke?
Relaxed, cheerful and reduces inhibitions
What do large amounts of alcohol lead to?
Lack of self control
Lack of judgement
Excessive drinking can lead to what?
Cirrhosis of the liver- disease- destroys liver tissue
Active tissue cells- replaced with scar tissues that cannot carry out vital functions
Alcohol is a what?
What can long term alcohol use also cause?
Damage to brain
Brain- becomes soft and pulpy- normal brain structures are lost - can no longer function properly. This can cause death
What happens when a pregnant woman drinks alcohol?
Alcohol passes through placenta into the developing baby
What are the risks of drinking while preggers?
Miscarriage, stillbirths, premature births and low birthweight
Why may the brain and body of an unborn baby may be badly effected?
Developing liver cannot cope w the alcohol
What may the baby have when having FAS
Problems with teeth, jaw, kidney, liver and heart
________ radiation in the form of different types of _______ ______ is a well-known carcinogen
Radioactive materials is a source of what?
What does radiation do? And what does this cause?
Penetrated cells and damages chromosomes, causing mutations in the DNA
The more exposed you are to ionising radiation, the more...
Likely it is that mutations will occur and cancer will develop
When is ionising radiation particularly dangerous?
When taken directly into your body
Where can radioactive materials be found?
soil, water and air (including radon gas in granite-rich areas such as cornwall and the Pennines)
Well-known sources of ionising radiation are?
UV light from the sun
Medical and dental X-rays
Accidents in nuclear power generation